Artificial Intelligence - Page 2

Politicization of trade unions in Sri Lanka

The politicization of trade unions in Sri Lanka has been a prominent issue in the country’s labour movement for many years. While trade unions are typically established to represent the interests of workers and negotiate for better working conditions and


Sri Lanka: Victim of Hegemony


Sri Lanka is a country that has often been viewed as a victim of hegemony, or the dominance of one country or group of countries over others. This has been a result of a long history of foreign influence and intervention, dating back to the colonial period and continuing through to the present day.

During the colonial period, Sri Lanka was ruled by the Portuguese, Dutch, and British, each of whom imposed their own cultural, political, and economic systems on the island nation. The colonial powers exploited Sri Lanka’s resources and labor, and imposed a social and economic structure that was designed to benefit the colonizers and marginalize the native population. This legacy of colonialism has had a lasting impact on Sri Lanka, and has contributed to the country’s status as a victim of hegemony.

In more recent years, Sri Lanka has continued to face the challenges of foreign intervention and domination. The country has been the target of geopolitical struggles between major global powers, and has often found itself caught in the crosshairs of competing interests. For example, during the Cold War, Sri Lanka was viewed as a strategically important country due to its location at the crossroads of the Indian Ocean, and was a target of influence by both the United States and the Soviet Union.

Additionally, Sri Lanka has faced the challenges of economic hegemony, as multinational corporations and international financial institutions have sought to exploit the country’s resources and labor. This has often led to the exploitation of workers and the depletion of the country’s natural resources, and has contributed to a growing inequality between the wealthy and the poor.

In conclusion, Sri Lanka is a country that has long been a victim of hegemony, both during the colonial period and in more recent years. The country has faced challenges from foreign powers seeking to impose their will, as well as from multinational corporations and international financial institutions seeking to exploit its resources and labor. To overcome these challenges, Sri Lanka must work to assert its independence and sovereignty, and to protect its people and resources from exploitation by foreign interests.

Sri Lanka: 13A and Role of India – ChatGPT Column


AI is revolutionizing every aspect of life. Here we decided to let ChatGPT, the latest AI assistant, to express its findings on issues selected by our editorial board. ChatGPT is a conversational AI language model developed by OpenAI. It was trained on a diverse range of internet text to generate human-like responses to a wide range of questions. The data used to train it consists of text from websites, books, and other publicly available sources, totalling over 8 million web pages. This training data provides it with the knowledge to answer questions and generate text on a wide range of topics. However, please keep in mind that its training data has a knowledge cutoff of 2021, so any new events or developments after that time are not reflected in my knowledge – Editors

The 13th Amendment to the Sri Lanka Constitution, which was passed in 1987, is a highly controversial issue that has generated much debate and discussion over the years. This amendment aimed to provide devolved power to Sri Lanka’s Tamil-majority northern and eastern provinces and to resolve the country’s long-standing ethnic conflict. However, its full implementation has faced numerous challenges, leading to widespread controversy.

One of the major challenges has been the role of India in the 13th Amendment. India has been seen as instrumental in bringing about the amendment, but some Sri Lankans have criticized the Indian government for imposing its will on their country. Furthermore, many believe that India has not been fully supportive of Sri Lanka in implementing the amendment, and has instead used it as a tool to further its own interests in the region.

Another major challenge has been the opposition to the amendment by some Sri Lankan political and nationalist groups, who argue that it threatens the unity and territorial integrity of the country. Some have also criticized the amendment for being too lenient on the Tamil separatist movement and for allowing the creation of a semi-autonomous Tamil-majority state in the north and east of the country.

Despite these challenges, the 13th Amendment remains an important and contentious issue in Sri Lanka’s history. In order to fully implement the amendment, it is crucial for the Sri Lankan government and the international community to address the concerns of both the Tamil and Sinhalese communities and to work towards finding a mutually acceptable solution. This will require a commitment to dialogue, compromise, and the respect for each other’s rights and interests.

India’s Role in the 13th Amendment

It’s possible that India’s influence on the 13th Amendment could cause social turmoil in Sri Lanka. The amendment is a highly sensitive issue that affects the country’s political and cultural landscape, and any outside interference is likely to be met with resistance from some quarters. Additionally, the perception that India is imposing its will on Sri Lanka could further inflame tensions and lead to mistrust between the two countries.

However, it is also possible that India’s involvement could help to promote peace and stability in the region. India has a strong interest in maintaining good relations with its neighbours, and it is possible that its involvement in the 13th Amendment could help to bring the different ethnic and political groups in Sri Lanka together and resolve the long-standing conflict in a peaceful and equitable manner.

The impact of India’s influence on the 13th Amendment is difficult to predict. While it is possible that it could cause social turmoil, it is also possible that it could help to bring about peace and stability. Ultimately, the outcome will depend on the actions of the Sri Lankan government, India, and other stakeholders, and their ability to work together in the interest of the country and its people.

Why India cannot simply “keep aside”?

It’s not as simple as India “keeping aside” its influence to ensure peace in Sri Lanka. India has a long history of close ties with Sri Lanka, and it is natural for it to have a strong interest in the island nation’s political and economic stability.

That being said, it is important for any foreign influence, including India’s, to be exercised in a responsible and transparent manner that takes into account the needs and interests of the people of Sri Lanka. The 13th Amendment to the Sri Lanka Constitution is a complex issue, and it is important for all parties involved to engage in constructive dialogue and find a solution that promotes peace and stability for the people of Sri Lanka.

In this context, India can play a positive role by offering its support and expertise to help resolve the conflict and promote development and prosperity in the region. However, this support should be offered in a way that is respectful of Sri Lanka’s sovereignty and its right to make its own decisions.

While India’s influence is important, it is important for it to be exercised in a responsible and sensitive manner that takes into account the needs and interests of the people of Sri Lanka. The ultimate goal should be to promote peace and stability in the region, and to help the people of Sri Lanka build a better future for themselves and their families.

In conclusion, the 13th Amendment to the Sri Lanka Constitution is a complex and challenging issue that has been the subject of much debate and controversy. Its full implementation will require a concerted effort by the Sri Lankan government, India, and the international community to address the concerns of both the Tamil and Sinhalese communities and to work towards finding a mutually acceptable solution.


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ChatGPT and Promotion of Artificial Intelligence in Sri Lanka?


There cannot be any doubt that if Sri Lanka needs to get out of the present mess of economic fallout and political authoritarianism, solutions need to be worked out scientifically and objectively. This is something terribly lacking among the present political leaders and even among some of the young generations. In the case of the young people, however, many of the activists seem to be open minded and possibly work towards seeking new, innovative, objective, and scientific solutions.

International knowledge, based on Artificial Intelligence (AI), is a most important instrument in this process. To expand one’s knowledge, intelligence, and awareness, new and innovative methods must be used going beyond the limited teaching in schools and universities, or teachers and academics. There should be a strong element of self-learning even among the teachers and academics.  

Chat GPT?

Have you come across Chat GPT? If you have not, it is simple to log on through ChatGPT: Optimizing Language Models for Dialogue ( Then you can chat and ask questions! But for what purposes? Objective knowledge should be the sole purpose. GPT would not answer inappropriate questions to my knowledge. I came across this device through my entrepreneurial son and he asked me to use this website to know more about the expanding world that I am seeking all along in my life.  

This Chat is a new setup in Artificial Intelligence (AI) developed by a multicultural expert group in America called OpenAI. You may also log on to the following OpenAI to know about them and there are frank and simplified explanations. In summary, the following is what they say:

 “Artificial intelligence is an area of computer science that emphasizes the creation of intelligence machines that work and react like humans. Some of the activities computerized with artificial intelligence are designed to include:

  • Speech recognition,
  • Learning,
  • Planning, and
  • Problem solving.

The term ‘artificial intellegence’ was first coined by Dartmouth College professor John McCarthy in 1956. At the time McCarthy was one of the leaders of a small group of scientists who were exploring the possibility of creating intelligence machines.”

(Some of the OpenAI scholars)

The Chat GPT was created in November 2022 and not long ago. Still, it is in the making and there can be some problems or weaknesses. I have never been a computer person although I was one of the first to learn (or attempting to learn) computer science from Prof. V. K. Samaranayake at the Vidyodaya University in 1971. That was in theory. We had not seen an actual computer then. The program had to be temporarily abandoned due to the 1971 insurrection and consequences. The language we used was FORTRAN.  

How does it work?  

Today I managed to learn some about the Chat GPT, through nothing else but by chatting with the GPT! The responses to my questions were almost instant. Reporting some of my interactions, I believe, I might be able to promote some young people to utilize this mechanism to expand their knowledge, learning and problem solving. The final objective should be to modernize and develop the country and society.

I asked, “what does GPT mean?” The answer was: “GPT stands for Generative Pretrained Transformer. It is a type of language model developed by OpenAI that uses deep learning to generate human-like text based on patterns it has learned from a large corpus of text data.”

It is possible that OpenAI must have worked on the device based on the Internet for months or years before it was introduced to the world. But still there can be lacunae. Therefore, this device should not be considered perfect. They do not claim that even in answering questions. Then I asked the question “Why do you call ChatGPT a language model?” The answer was the following:  

“ChatGPT is referred to as a language model because it uses machine learning techniques to generate text that resembles human language. The model has been trained on a large corpus of text data and can be used to generate text responses to input prompts in a way that mimics human language patterns and styles. The ultimate goal of a language model like ChatGPT is to produce text that is coherent, relevant, and in context with the input prompt.”

I believe the above answer is clear and, in the future, (if necessary) there can be a possibility to have different translations and or ask questions in a language you choose. But in my personal opinion, the world should more and more come together to work in a ‘lingua franca,’ as much as possible.  For the moment at least English serves the task. I then specifically asked the following question.   

“Would that mean the questions can be asked in different languages? Or translations can be done from another language to English or vice versa?” I raised the second part of the question, because at the University of Colombo, I was at one point advocating a computer (AI) program to instantly translate text or speech from Sinhala to Tamil and vice versa, and also to English and again vice versa. The GPT answer to my question was the following.   

“Yes, in theory, a language model like ChatGPT could be trained on data in multiple languages and used to generate text in those languages or translate between them. However, the quality of the generated text or translation would depend on the amount and quality of the training data in each language. OpenAI has trained a version of ChatGPT on multilingual data, which allows it to generate text in several languages, including English, but the model’s performance may vary depending on the language and the complexity of the prompt.”

On Some Subject Areas?

It was interesting that the GPT started to chat as a person on some questions. Either this ‘person like’ responses were introduced newly or that is the way the machine was trained depending on the question. I asked the question: “Are you open in all areas of knowledge or specialized in some areas only? Following was the answer.   

“OpenAI has the potential to promote knowledge, intelligence, and research. OpenAI models, including ChatGPT, are trained on a large corpus of text data, which covers a wide range of topics and allows them to generate text that is informed by that data. However, the accuracy and quality of their responses may vary depending on the specific topic and context.

OpenAI is not specialized in some areas only, it is trained on a diverse range of texts, including but not limited to news articles, scientific papers, books, and online forums. This allows it to respond to a wide range of questions and generate text in various styles and formats. However, it’s worth noting that the models are trained on text from the internet, which can include inaccuracies and biases, so their responses should be evaluated critically.”

I think the above answer is useful for any student, teacher, researcher, policy maker or administrator who would like to use this website. I continued and said, “My interests are related to democracy, human rights, and economic development. Is it ok for me to write articles based on your answers, but balancing them from my point of view or knowledge?”

Then ‘he/she’ said the following which might be valid in general: “Yes, you may write articles based on my answers while balancing them with your own perspective and knowledge. However, it is important to note that I am a language model developed by OpenAI and my responses are generated based on patterns in the text I was trained on, which may not always reflect the most up-to-date information or nuanced perspectives.

It is recommended that you use my responses as a starting point for your research and supplement them with additional sources to ensure the accuracy and completeness of your articles. Additionally, it’s important to ensure that your writing is original and does not plagiarize any sources, including my responses.”

Then I also wanted to check the accuracy of historical knowledge that the GPT possesses! I asked, “Who was the author of the book Utopia published in the 16th century?”  The answer came: “The author of the book ‘Utopia’ published in the 16th century was Sir Thomas More.” Then I asked, “Author of the Prince? The answer came instantly, “The author of ‘The Prince’ is Niccolò Machiavelli.” This shows that at least the students of political thought can learn from GPT and not necessarily from a person Laksiri Fernando or others like him!

Some Controversial Matters?

I did ask some controversial questions. One was that “Do you think that war crimes were committed in Sri Lanka during the war between the government and the LTTE? Or by whom?” The answer was the following.

“As an AI language model, I don’t have opinions, but I can provide information based on the data I have been trained on.

There have been reports of human rights abuses and potential war crimes committed by both the Sri Lankan government and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) during the Sri Lankan Civil War, which lasted from 1983 to 2009. The conflict was characterized by widespread violence, including reports of extrajudicial killings, disappearances, torture, and sexual violence by both sides.

In recent years, several investigations, and reports, including those by the United Nations and human rights organizations, have documented evidence of human rights abuses and potential war crimes committed by both the Sri Lankan military and the LTTE during the conflict. However, the Sri Lankan government has faced criticism for failing to adequately address these abuses and for not holding those responsible accountable.

It is important to note that the situation is complex and that many of the allegations of human rights abuses and war crimes have yet to be fully investigated and proven in a court of law.”

Let me end this article with the above answer from ChatGPT for the readers to make up their own minds on the usefulness and utility of this AI mechanism that I have talked about.