Xinhua News Agency

Founded in 1931, Xinhua News Agency is one of the largest news organizations in the world, with over 10,000 employees across the globe. As the main source of news and information for China, Xinhua plays a key role in shaping the country's media landscape and communicating its perspectives to the world. The agency produces a wide range of content, including text news articles, photos, videos, and social media posts, in both Chinese and English, and its reports are widely used by media organizations around the world. Xinhua also operates several international bureaus, including in key capitals like Washington, D.C., Moscow, and London, to provide in-depth coverage of global events.

Russia urges U.S. to prove innocence over Nord Stream incident

1 min read

 The United States should try to prove its innocence of blowing up the Nord Stream gas pipelines, the Russian Embassy in the United States said on Thursday.

The Russian side will not allow to simply turn the page on destroying critical energy infrastructure, especially given the fact that nothing is known about the remaining explosives on the bottom of the Baltic Sea, the embassy’s press secretary Igor Girenko said in a statement.

“We qualify the incident as an act of international terrorism that requires a comprehensive and independent investigation. The United States, claiming to be the source of the ‘ultimate truth,’ should drop the baseless accusations against us and get down to business,” Girenko said.

In an article published last week, Pulitzer Prize winner Seymour Hersh revealed that the United States partnered with Norway in a top-secret operation in June 2022 to plant remotely triggered explosives that took out three of the four Nord Stream pipes three months later. 

World Insights: U.S. is world’s biggest spy power

3 mins read

Living up to the epithet of “surveillance empire,” the United State has, for decades, conducted indiscriminate mass surveillance of foreign governments, companies and individuals as well as its own citizens.

[Xinhua]An utterly harmless, unmanned civilian airship has been in the cross-hairs in the latest anti-China stunt pulled by some U.S. politicians and media.

However, the ploy of accusing China of flying surveillance balloon has only made their smear attack look quite clumsy and ludicrous as it’s no secret the United States itself is the world’s biggest spy power with the world’s widest intelligence network.

Living up to the epithet of “surveillance empire,” the United State has, for decades, conducted indiscriminate mass surveillance of foreign governments, companies and individuals as well as its own citizens.


When it comes to surveillance, it’s necessary to point out the United States is the world’s No. 1 surveillance state, Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson Wang Wenbin has said in a recent press briefing.

According to Politico, the Pentagon has spent billions of dollars developing high-altitude reconnaissance balloons since 1997 and quietly transitioned the balloon projects to the military services in 2022. The balloons may be used to track hypersonic strategic cruise missiles being developed by China and Russia.

Permeating through every part of the world, the U.S. surveillance network also targets the country’s allies.

In May 2021, Denmark’s national broadcaster DR News reported that the Danish Defense Intelligence Service had given the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) open Internet access to spy on senior politicians of countries, including then German Chancellor Angela Merkel.

The NSA purposefully obtained data and thus was able to spy on targeted heads of state, as well as Scandinavian leaders, top politicians, and high-ranking officials in Germany, Sweden, Norway and France, the report said, which caused global shock and fury.

French President Emmanuel Macron said in May 2021 that this “is unacceptable between allies, even less between allies and European partners,” and Merkel said she “could only agree” with Macron’s comments.

But that was not unfamiliar to European leaders. In 2013, former NSA contractor Edward Snowden revealed that Washington had been spying on the email and cell phone communications of as many as 35 world leaders.

Journalist Glenn Greenwald exposed in his book No Place to Hide that a single unit of the NSA had collected more than 97 billion emails and 124 billion phone calls from around the world in just 30 days in 2013.

The powerful mass surveillance system has helped the United States make profits.

For example, in 2013, reports of the U.S. magazine WIRED surfaced that Brazil’s state oil and gas giant Petrobras was a prime target of U.S. government spying activity.

“Washington is losing its moral ground,” the German magazine Focus quoted an expert on foreign policy as saying.

With its global surveillance network, “the United States itself is the true eavesdropper,” Focus said, though the country prefers to frame itself as a victim of spying.


According to a recent report by Georgetown University Law Center’s Center on Privacy and Technology, the United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) has expanded far beyond its role as an immigration agency to become a “domestic surveillance agency.”

The ICE has developed a dragnet surveillance system that allows it to collect detailed dossiers on nearly every person in America at any time, without any judicial, legislative, or public oversight, said the report titled “American Dragnet: Data-driven Deportation in the 21st Century.”

From 2008 to 2021, the ICE has spent approximately 2.8 billion U.S. dollars on surveillance, data collection and data-sharing initiatives, the report said, noting the agency has been able to access utility record information of over 218 million customers across all 50 states.

The ICE is not the only agency in the United States that has overreached its authority and abused citizens’ private personal data.

In fact, mass surveillance in the United States has become institutionalized. Following the 9/11 terrorist attacks, the United States enacted numerous laws to expand the government’s surveillance powers for national security reasons.

The U.S. Congress greenlighted the Patriot Act in 2001, which covers Section 215, one of the most controversial programs for domestic and international surveillance.

In 2008, Congress approved Section 702 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, which allows the government to collect communications concerning foreign intelligence targets without a warrant.

Following the disclosure by Snowden and Wikileaks of the U.S. government’s abuse of power to collect millions of Americans’ private data, the ensuing public outcry prompted Congress to prohibit the notorious bugging project PRISM.

However, the government actually never stops abusing its power to carry out indiscriminate surveillance on its citizens.

In 2021 alone, the FBI has conducted up to 3.4 million warrantless searches of Americans’ phone calls, emails and text messages, the Hill reported, citing the Office of the Director of National Intelligence.

China to replenish 20,000 tonnes of pork reserves to stabilize market

1 min read

China’s top economic planner said Friday it would stockpile 20,000 tonnes of frozen pork to replenish state reserves, as an index monitoring pork prices has dropped below the warning level.

The index, the national average of pork prices against grain prices, has fallen below the warning level of 5 to 1, said the National Development and Reform Commission.

According to a work plan for stabilizing the pork market, China has introduced a three-level early-warning system to raise the alarm for excessive ups and downs in hog prices.

The commission said it would work with relevant departments to start this year’s first stockpiling work for state pork reserves and guide local governments to purchase pork.

China pays close attention to price changes in the pork market and will continue to strengthen the regulation of production capacity and price to keep the market stable.


3,000-year-old settlement site found in China

1 min read

Archaeologists have discovered the ruins of a settlement site dating back more than 3,000 years in southwest China’s Yunnan Province, which may offer new clues on the origin of the Dian culture once thriving in the region.

The site was found in the Gucheng Village Site in Kunming, the provincial capital.

The ring-shaped settlement is well-preserved and composed of platforms, trenches and slope protection, said Zhou Ranchao, a researcher with the Yunnan Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology.

The recent discovery of the settlement in the Gucheng Village Site marks a significant addition to the over 1,000 relic sites found there, including tombs, houses, trenches and ash pits, dating back to an era when China’s central region was under the Shang (1600-1046 B.C.) and Zhou (1046-256 B.C.) dynasties.

Zhou said the settlement, representing a culture earlier than the Dian culture, offers new materials for understanding the settlement forms, social organizations, funeral customs and ethnic composition of early cultures in southwest China.

Russian diplomacy to focus on ending Western hegemony: FM

1 min read

Russia’s upcoming new foreign policy concept will focus on terminating the West’s monopoly in international affairs, the country’s Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said on Wednesday.

International affairs should be determined not by the West’s “selfish interests,” but on “a fair, universal basis of a balance of interests as required by the UN Charter,” Lavrov said at Russia’s State Duma.

“The United States and its allies are obsessed with a maniacal desire to revive the neo-colonial, unipolar world order to interfere with the objective process of the formation and rise of new world centers,” he said.

Washington and its allies are waging “an all-out hybrid war against Russia that has been prepared for many years” in order to defeat Russia on the battlefield, destroy its economy, cordon off the country and turn it into an “outcast,” Lavrov added.

However, all of the West’s attempts to isolate Russia have failed, he stressed.

China’s first domestically-built large cruise ship to be delivered by end 2023

1 min read

China’s first domestically-built large cruise ship is expected to be delivered by the end of 2023, with over 91 percent of construction completed, the administration bureau of the bonded area in China (Shanghai) Pilot Free Trade Zone announced at a press conference on Wednesday.

According to China State Shipbuilding Corporation, the country’s largest shipbuilder, the cruise ship’s background work, interiors work and tuning work are progressing simultaneously, while the shipbuilder is also digging in on the construction of the second domestically-built large cruise ship, which started in August 2022.

Also at the conference, Shanghai authorities released a cruise industry development plan for the Waigaoqiao area, which consists of 20 favorable measures involved in fostering innovation, attracting talent, and building a sound business environment.

Shanghai aims to build the area into a world-class cruise industry cluster boasting a fine-tuned industrial system, world-leading high-end manufacturing, and concentrated consumption resources by 2035, read the plan.

“In the future, we will further improve the relevant industrial chain and accelerate the agglomeration of corporate headquarters and sectors of cruise shipbuilding and cruise ship operation,” said Zhao Feng, deputy director of the bureau.

China has wrapped up 2022 with an eye-catching performance in the shipbuilding sector, and retained the largest share of the global market for the 13th straight year, with six companies ranking among the world’s top 10 shipbuilding enterprises. 

All Sets to Sign first-ever Treaty on High Seas Biodiversity

2 mins read

The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) on Tuesday urged governments to protect the world’s oceans by finalizing a long-awaited High Seas Treaty at the United Nations (UN) in New York this March.

The first-ever treaty on high seas biodiversity would provide a globally recognized mechanism to designate marine protected areas, and is crucial in order to achieve the goal of protecting at least 30 percent of the world’s oceans, Jessica Battle, WWF’s senior global ocean governance and policy expert told Xinhua in a video interview.

One of the main impacts of human activities on the ocean is fishing, Battle highlighted.

At the Fifth International Marine Protected Areas Congress (IMPAC5) which took place in Vancouver, Canada, from Feb. 3-9, the WWF called on policymakers to accelerate global ocean protection from 8 percent to 30 percent within eight years.

Previously, at COP15 in Montreal in December, the goal of protecting and conserving at least 30 percent of the world’s marine and coastal areas was adopted by 196 countries under the Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF).

“China played a very strong role at COP15, making sure that we did get an agreement by the 196 parties to halt and reverse nature loss by 2030,” said Battle, who will attend the negotiations in New York.

In a resolution in December 2017, the UN General Assembly decided to convene an intergovernmental conference to draw up the text of an international legally binding instrument on the conservation and use of marine biodiversity.


However, the UN’s negotiations for a High Seas Treaty stalled last August as delegates said more time was needed to reach an agreement on a final text.

Governments must ensure that the ocean receives the level of attention and protection it needs in order to provide for the future, Battle said.

Waters which lie beyond national jurisdictions, known as the high seas, comprise nearly two-thirds of the ocean’s area. However, only about 1 percent of this huge swath of the planet is protected, WWF said.

Battle said the treaty would be ratified when 30 countries sign up to it, and it is then implemented into national legislation.

It is critical that the treaty should enter into force quickly, Battle said.


WWF also said that the ocean faces new potential threats such as deep seabed mining, a nascent industry with the potential to cause irreparable harm to fragile deep-sea ecosystems.

“We are seeing a growing number of countries calling for a global moratorium … This will be agreed at the International Seabed Authority which meets three times a year in Jamaica,” Battle said.

“We need to safeguard this very important environment in order to reach biodiversity goals, and also to safeguard the ocean as a carbon sink.”

Many ocean areas play a key role for important species of shark, tuna, whale and sea turtle, and they also support billions of dollars of economic activity annually, WWF has said.

In its “Reviving the Ocean Economy” report, the organization outlined that the goods and services that flow from the ocean and coasts are worth at least 2.5 trillion U.S. dollars each year, and the overall value of the ocean as an asset is 10 times more.  ■

Interview: Data Proves US involvement in Nord Stream Blast

1 min read

According to Seymour Hersh, a Pulitzer Prize winner, last June, the U.S. Navy divers, operating under the cover of a widely publicized mid-summer NATO exercise known as BALTOPS 22, planted the remotely triggered explosives that destroyed three of the four Nord Stream pipelines three months later.

The recent report by a famed U.S. journalist on the involvement of the U.S. Navy in the Nord Stream explosions is “credible” and is consistent with several existing facts, a renowned scholar has said.

American investigative journalist Seymour Hersh said last week on the U.S. portal Substack that the U.S. Navy was involved in the Nord Stream explosions.

According to Hersh, a Pulitzer Prize winner, last June, the U.S. Navy divers, operating under the cover of a widely publicized mid-summer NATO exercise known as BALTOPS 22, planted the remotely triggered explosives that destroyed three of the four Nord Stream pipelines three months later.

“I have long hypothesized that the U.S. Government carried out this action, and Hersh’s account adds to the likelihood of that hypothesis,” said Jeffrey Sachs, director of the Center for Sustainable Development at Columbia University, in an emailed interview with Xinhua.

The professor has listed 11 facts corresponding to Hersh’s report.

First and second are “the long-standing vociferous U.S. opposition to Nord Stream and the extensive record of U.S. covert operations against the infrastructure of other countries,” he said.

U.S. President Joe Biden last year publicly warned that in the event of a Russian military campaign, the United States would end the pipeline, declaring, “I promise you we will be able to do it,” said the economist.

Fourth, U.S. Undersecretary of State for Political Affairs Victoria Nuland warned in 2022 that Nord Stream “would not move forward” if Russia launches operations, he added.

Moreover, “very few countries, if any, other than the United States have the technical capacity to carry out such an attack without immediate detection,” said Sachs.

 He also listed Sweden’s remarkable unwillingness to reveal the results of its own investigation into the explosions, and the silence in mainstream Western media regarding Hersh’s report, as two facts that can explain his hypothesis.

The eighth fact is that “Western intelligence agencies have admitted that there is no evidence whatsoever that Russia carried out this act,” he said.

The celebration by U.S. Secretary of State Anthony Blinken, who deemed the pipeline destruction a “tremendous opportunity” to wean Europe from Russian gas, and by Nuland, who called the damaged Nord Stream 2 “a hunk of metal at the bottom of the sea,” also add to the possibility of the United States orchestrating the destruction, said the professor.

Lastly, Hersh’s credible and detailed account has yet to be refuted other than possibly in minor details, he said.

Banality of Evil: U.S. history of unethical human experiments

7 mins read

“It is peaceful. The sun shines. The sea is blue. But you forget … there is evil everywhere under the sun.”

The stinging famous line written by “Queen of Crime” Agatha Christie in her mystery tale “Evil Under the Sun” that unveils the darkness of murders could not be truer. It is just that crimes in the real world are often much more appalling.

Just take a look at what the United States has done. For nearly a century, the self-proclaimed “beacon of human rights” has used thousands of Americans and innocent citizens from other countries as unwilling guinea pigs in its human experiments, and has gotten away with it almost every time. This ugly yet unnoticed past, as former Guatemalan President Alvaro Colom said, is every inch a “crime against humanity.”


When Allen Hornblum started his work as a literacy instructor in Philadelphia’s prison system in 1971, he noticed right away something unusual and chilling behind the walls: Many inmates at Holmesburg Prison, most of whom were African American men, had patches or gauze pads on their backs, which, Hornblum found out later, were the results of longtime and extensive human experiments.

“It really is a very dark mark on Philadelphia’s history,” Hornblum told Xinhua outside Holmesburg, describing the prison nicknamed The Terrordome as “arguably the largest human experimentation center in the United States.”

Government records showed that from 1951 to 1974, hundreds of Holmesburg inmates were intentionally exposed to pharmaceuticals, viruses, fungus, asbestos, and even dioxin. Those human trials, led by dermatologist Albert Kligman associated with the University of Pennsylvania, had different sponsors, including major pharmaceutical companies and the U.S. military.

“The inmates were not particularly sophisticated. The vast majority of them were unschooled,” Hornblum said. “Even though they were the subjects, they were not told what they were being injected with or having rubbed on them.”

In return for slim payment in the jail — 1 U.S. dollar or sometimes 1.5 to 2 dollars a day — the inmates had to suffer from symptoms like itchy skin, rashes, discolorations and fevers, and in some cases, they became more violent. But they were “left somewhat incompetent until they recovered from whatever drugs they had been given,” said Hornblum.

After giving up his job in the Philadelphia Sheriff’s Office in 1993, Hornblum started to write his maiden book on the horrifying subject. Following the publication of “Acres of Skin” in 1998, Holmesburg’s inmates learned what had gone on for the first time and started to join ranks. Subsequently, Hornblum met Edward Anthony, a test subject “in a series of very, very nasty, unethical experiments that basically destroyed his life, or at least that portion of his life.”

When Anthony got back on the street, he was “still suffering in many ways,” said Hornblum, who later penned “Sentenced to Science,” “basically one Black man’s account of what happened to him as a human guinea pig.”

Anthony and many other victims “don’t trust the medical community anymore because they saw how themselves and others were mistreated and used and abused.”

Similar tragedies befell Alabama. Starting from 1932, the U.S. Public Health Service and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recruited 600 African American men, including 399 with latent syphilis and a control group of 201 others free of the disease, for a notorious study called the Tuskegee Experiment.

According to an audio interview in 1977 by the Harvard University Schlesinger Library with public health nurse Eunice Rivers Laurie, a key actor in the drama, the participants, promised free medical care, were never informed of the real nature of the study, which was to observe the effects of syphilis when untreated. Despite the fact that penicillin became the standard treatment for the disease some 15 years into the study, those men were still provided with nothing but disguised placebos like aspirin and mineral supplements.

It was until late 1972 that a leak to the press finally resulted in the termination of the study. By then, 28 patients had died directly from syphilis, and 100 from complications related to the disease. Besides, 40 of the patients’ wives were infected with syphilis, and 19 children were born with congenital syphilis.

Adding to the U.S. criminal record was a set of unethical medical experiments on at least 2,600 incarcerated men in the 1960s and 1970s by the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF).

According to the UCSF’s internal investigation unveiled in December last year, the experiments included putting “pesticides and herbicides” on the men’s skin and injecting them into their veins. In many cases there was no record of informed consent.


On Oct. 1, 2010, then U.S. President Barack Obama telephoned his Guatemalan counterpart, Colom, to apologize for a series of dodgy human experiments the United States did in 1946-1948 on Guatemalans.

In those experiments, U.S. public health doctors intentionally infected hundreds of people with sexually transmitted diseases in what was meant as an effort to test the effectiveness of penicillin. The participants were enrolled without consent.

It was only in 2009 when Susan Reverby, a historian of U.S. health care, found a personal file of John C. Cutler containing records on medical experiments conducted in Guatemala in the second half of the 1940s and brought the unethical studies to light.

“Researchers deliberately exposed about 1,300 inmates, psychiatric patients, soldiers and commercial sex workers to the sexually transmitted diseases syphilis, gonorrhea or chancroid,” said a report by the U.S. Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues published in 2011, adding, “Careful examination of thousands of pages of treatment and follow-up records indicates that at least 83 subjects died.”

Pablo Werner, a Guatemalan human rights lawyer investigating the case, told Xinhua the miseries went far beyond the participants themselves.

“We found many children of syphilis patients directly affected. Some were prone to early miscarriages, and others unable to have children. Many children were infected with syphilis at birth, and some died at three to four months of age,” Werner said, adding that many victims and their families have yet to receive compensation.

Across the North Atlantic, the Nigerian government’s taking on U.S. multinational pharmaceutical and biotechnology corporation Pfizer in 2007 provided insight into the U.S. misdeeds on the African continent.

In 1996, a severe meningitis epidemic broke out in northern Nigeria’s state of Kano. During this time, Pfizer decided to test “Trovan” on the population suffering from the epidemic, a new anti-meningitis drug approved in the United States for use by adults but not children. Without any informed consent, Pfizer allegedly administered Trovan to 200 Nigerian children, 11 of which died due to the drug and the remaining developed conditions including hearing impediments, brain damage, blindness and paralysis.

The company denied any wrongdoing, stating that the children died of meningitis rather than their drug. An out-of-court settlement was reached in 2009 for, allegedly, 75 million dollars to Kano and 175,000 dollars to four families of children killed.

Nigerian virologist Oyewale Tomori, also former president of the Nigerian Academy of Science, told Xinhua that Pfizer took advantage of the situation and carried out drug trials not in line with medical ethics because the parents of those sick children, ignorant as they were, were desperate for medical treatment.

The inhumane trials on human bodies continued in the 21st century. A report published in 2017 by the U.S. Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) revealed that in the wake of the 9/11 attacks, the CIA turned to a wide range of health professionals for “illegal and unethical research on prisoners.” They designed and implemented torture such as waterboarding and sleep deprivation, monitored and collected data ostensibly to manage harm, and maintained abusive detention conditions and treatment.

In one particular case, they carried out an “aggressive” interrogation of a detainee named Abu Zubaydah. “A period of escalating mistreatment followed, so extreme that personnel were warned to ‘prepare for something not seen previously’ and some were affected to the point of tears,” said the report.

Russia’s disclosure about the U.S.-funded biolabs in Ukraine since 2022 has also sent jitters around the globe. “There is only one country in the world that is operating hundreds of military biolabs on another country’s territory and spending billions of dollars to do so, and that is the United States,” said Igor Nikulin, former inspector of the UN Commission on Chemical, Bacteriological and Biological Weapons.

The secretive military-backed biolabs worldwide controlled by the United States pose a serious threat to global security, said Kenya-based international relations scholar Cavince Adhere.


In August 1947, U.S. judges sitting in judgment of Nazi doctors accused of conducting murderous and torturous human experiments in the concentration camps formulated the Nuremberg Code, a 10-point set of rules for the conduct of human experiments. It regulates that the voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential, and that experiments should be conducted so as to avoid all unnecessary physical and mental suffering and injury.

Later in 1964, the World Medical Association developed the Declaration of Helsinki for the medical community, a set of ethical principles regarding human experimentation. The fundamental principle of the declaration is respect for the individual, his or her right to self-determination and the right to make informed decisions regarding participation in research, both initially and during the course of the research.

“The medical community disregarded it (the Nuremberg Code). They thought it was an obstacle. So they didn’t abide by it,” Hornblum said. “Some very smart people shoved ethics away because they saw it as an imposition, as a problem, as something that’s gonna block them from their scientific quests. And that’s why there are so many instances in prison and other institutions where people were used as guinea pigs for medical experimentation.”

The type of research on prisoners or detainees done by the CIA “is the very reason the Nuremberg Code protocols were developed. In the course of facilitating the crime of torture, U.S. health professionals committed a second and related crime: human subjects research and experimentation on detainees being tortured, in violation of medical ethics and U.S. and international law,” said the report by the PHR.

Clara de Paiz, a social investigator who once followed the Guatemala case, told Xinhua those human experiments have seriously violated the Declaration of Helsinki, as U.S. medical staff never warned the subjects of the possible dangers.

Pfizer’s drug trials in Nigeria violated the World Health Organization’s guidelines on drug testing, and the medical ethics that pharmaceutical companies should abide by, said Tomori, adding that traumatized by the incident, many Nigerians are still suspicious of foreign drugs and vaccines, making it hard for the government to carry out successful vaccination campaigns amid the COVID-19 pandemic.

For many, the U.S. contempt of widely-acknowledged medical regulations is born out of a deep-rooted disrespect for humanity, both home and abroad. The participants in the Philadelphia case, Hornblum said, “were basically forgotten, the way doctors use lab rats or dogs or monkeys or chimpanzees.”

Back in the 1940s, U.S. researchers had shown no respect for Guatemalans, using them as though they were an inferior and disposable race, and although more than 70 years have passed, the United States still refuses to see Guatemala as an equal, said de Paiz.

Selenium-enriched foods could be used against Alzheimer’s disease: study

1 min read

Chinese researchers have recently put forward evidence for improving Alzheimer’s disease (AD) with selenium-enriched foods and ingredients, according to the Institute of Microbiology under Guangdong Academy of Sciences.

The new study indicates that selenium-enriched ingredients can inhibit inflammation and oxidative stress, showing the potential of a new dietary strategy for AD patients.

AD is a neurological disease characterized by memory loss and declining learning capacity, which can impair an individual’s ability to perform daily activities and worsen their quality of life. There is a growing interest in selenium-enriched ingredients in the study of AD.

A joint study team with researchers from the the Institute of Microbiology under Guangdong Academy of Sciences and other institutions proposed the potential interventional mechanism of selenium-enriched ingredients for improving AD.

Selenium-enriched ingredients are ubiquitous in many plants and microorganisms, such as Brassicaceae vegetables, yeast, and mushrooms.

The study also showed that enzymatic hydrolysis and physical processing, such as thermal, high pressure and microwave treatment, are the main techniques to modify the properties of dietary selenium.

The study results have been published in the journal Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition.

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