Muhammad Wasama Khalid

Muhammad Wasama Khalid is a Correspondent and Researcher at Global Affairs. He is pursuing his Bachelors in International Relations at National Defense University (NDU). He has a profound interest in history, politics, current affairs, and international relations. He is an author of Global village space, Global defense insight, Global Affairs, and modern diplomacy. He tweets at @Wasama Khalid and can be reached at

Uncovering Pakistan’s Natural Wonders: The Majesty of its Mountains, Rivers, and Wildlife


Pakistan is a country that is most well-known for its lively culture and extensive history; yet, the country also has a wide variety of natural beauties that are sometimes disregarded. The impressiveness of Pakistan’s mountain ranges, the importance of the country’s rivers, the abundance of the country’s animal life, and the possibility of developing ecotourism in these regions.

The natural landscape of Pakistan is very varied, consisting of high-altitude mountains, enormous deserts, lush valleys, and rich river plains. The nation is home to some of the highest peaks in the world, such as K2 and Nanga Parbat, as well as the massive Indus River, which for millennia has been an important factor in the country’s agriculture and economy.

The Himalayas, Karakoram, and Hindu Kush Mountain ranges are all located in Pakistan, making it the home to some of the most impressive mountain ranges in the world. Mountaineers and others looking for exciting new experiences from all over the globe go to these mountain ranges because of the high peaks, deep valleys, and glaciers that may be found there. The Karakoram range is home to K2, the second-highest peak in the world. This mountain is famous for the technical challenges it presents as well as the stunning views it offers. The Karakoram Mountain range in Pakistan was breathtaking to see. There was nothing else quite like the towering peaks and expansive glaciers.

In addition to these well-known summits, Pakistan is home to several mountain ranges that are less well-known, such as the Kirthar and Sulaiman ranges. These regions provide one-of-a-kind possibilities for hiking, seeing native species, and discovering local culture.

The rivers that run across Pakistan, such as the Indus, Jhelum, and Chenab, have all been significant contributors to the nation’s history and overall growth. These rivers are an essential resource for agriculture and business since they provide water that may be used for irrigation, transportation, and the generation of hydroelectric power.

White water rafting and fishing are only two of the recreational activities that may be enjoyed on Pakistan’s rivers. Specifically, those searching for an exciting rafting experience go to the Indus River, which is a popular location for those interested in adventure.

Pakistan is benefiting from the rich economic center platform that the Gwadar coast is giving. The fishing industry in these regions is highly regarded throughout the globe. With efforts by the government to construct infrastructure to showcase the undiscovered parts of Pakistan, the less developed areas are now attracting the attention of the world community. This is a result of the efforts that have been made to expose the uncharted areas of Pakistan.

The natural environment of Pakistan is home to a diverse array of animal life, including a great number of species that are exclusive to the territory of Pakistan. The snow leopard, for instance, is a flagship species that is only found in the high-altitude regions of Pakistan. It is a symbol of the country’s tremendous biodiversity since it can only be found in those areas. Other emblematic animals include the markhor, a kind of wild goat that lives in the highlands of Pakistan, and the Indus River dolphin, a species of freshwater dolphin that is indigenous to the Indus River. Both of these dolphins are unique to the Indus River.

The protection of these one-of-a-kind species and the environments in which they live is dependent on the success of conservation efforts. In an attempt to maintain its natural heritage, Pakistan has created several national parks and protected areas; nevertheless, Pakistan must continue its efforts to guarantee that these regions will be preserved for the benefit of future generations.

The natural beauties of Pakistan have a significant impact on the country’s tourist industry and provide possibilities for cultural discovery, outdoor activities, and animal watching. But, to preserve the natural environment and its inhabitants, tourism must be grown in a way that is both sustainable and responsible.

A lack of infrastructure and accessibility in distant parts of Pakistan, as well as concerns over safety and security, are some of the obstacles to the development of sustainable tourism in Pakistan. Nonetheless, there are already attempts being made to solve these difficulties, and sustainable tourism has the potential to give economic advantages to local people while also protecting the natural legacy of the nation.

Being in the middle of such breathtaking natural beauty brought home to me how vital it is to protect these regions for the sake of future generations. Contributing to conservation efforts is essential to ensure that these areas maintain their pristine state.

The land of Pakistan is home to an abundance of natural beauties that are sure to take your breath away. Pakistan provides tourists with an experience that is one of a kind and one that they will never forget, thanks to the country’s majestic mountains, flowing rivers, and diversified animal population. It is impossible to exaggerate the significance of these natural marvels since they play a vital part in ensuring the sustainability of the nation’s economy, culture, and environment.

Why Pakistan Defies the Failed State Narrative?

Despite the worst pandemic (Covid-19) and flood destruction, Pakistan is anticipated to grow at a 3.2% annual rate in FY 2023/24, according to a World Bank estimate.

Pakistan has long been associated with negative stereotypes, with many seeing it as a failing state. Poverty, terrorism, political instability, and corruption have all been problems for the country. Despite these challenges, Pakistan has demonstrated amazing resilience and success.

Pakistan was established in 1947 as a result of the partition of British India. At its foundation, the country faced various problems, including the migration of millions of people and the formation of a new administration. Pakistan’s early years were defined by political instability, with numerous changes in administration and periods of martial law. Throughout Pakistan’s history, the military has played an important role, with various military coups taking place.

In the face of various adversities, Pakistan has demonstrated incredible resilience and success, and several variables contribute to this resilience.

Economic progress:

Pakistan has achieved significant economic growth in recent years, with its GDP growing at an average rate of 5.2% per year between 2013 and 2018. The agriculture sector in Pakistan is a vital component of the country’s food security and economic stability, providing a foundation for resilience. This growth has been driven by industries such as IT and textiles, with Pakistan becoming one of the largest exporters of textiles, which account for the majority of Pakistan’s exports, valued at $19.33 billion in 2022 in the world. The IT industry has also seen significant growth, with the government actively promoting the sector as a key driver of economic growth.

According to the World Bank, the poverty rate in Pakistan has decreased from 64.3% in 2002 to 24.3% in 2015. However, major obstacles exist, particularly in rural regions. The government has made initiatives to address the issues of poverty, unemployment, and inequality, including the introduction of a poverty alleviation program and the implementation of a national minimum wage. However, more must be done to guarantee that the advantages of economic progress are more fairly distributed.

Political progress:

Pakistan has achieved substantial political progress in recent years, with civilian administrations peacefully transferring power. There has also been more journalistic freedom, with more coverage of political and social topics. To further reinforce democratic processes, the administration has made initiatives to strengthen institutions such as the judiciary and the Election Commission. To improve democratic institutions, the administration is aiming to increase openness and accountability.

Security Improvement:

In recent years, Pakistan has experienced considerable security challenges, including terrorism and regional wars. Terrorist assaults have long plagued the country, with the most recent being the 2014 attack on the Army Public School in Peshawar, which killed 132 students and 9 staff members. Regional crises, notably the ongoing violence in neighboring Afghanistan, have also had an impact on the country.

Despite these difficulties, Pakistan’s military and security forces have achieved tremendous advances in battling terrorism and enhancing security. Pakistan boasts a robust military, which serves to preserve stability and protect its territorial sovereignty. The commencement of Operation Zarb-e-Azb in 2014 was a watershed moment in Pakistan’s counter-terrorism efforts, with the military effectively striking terrorist strongholds in tribal areas. As a result, the number of terrorist attacks in Pakistan has reduced dramatically, with a 62% decline in the number of events and an 83% decrease in the number of deaths between 2014 and 2019.

Pakistan has also made progress in improving regional security, particularly through its role in the Afghan peace process. Pakistan has played a key role in facilitating peace talks between the Taliban and the Afghan government, to promote stability and security in the region.

Social progress:

Pakistan has made significant progress in recent years in improving social indicators such as education, healthcare, and gender equality. The government has invested heavily in improving access to education, particularly for girls, with the number of out-of-school children decreasing by 22% between 2017 and 2019. According to UNESCO, Pakistan’s literacy rate has improved from 43% in 1998 to 63% in 2017. Healthcare has also improved, with the government launching several initiatives to increase access to healthcare services and improve the quality of care.

Pakistan has made strides toward gender equality, notably through legal measures such as the Protection of Women Against Violence Act and the Criminal Law Amendment Act. Women’s representation in Pakistan’s National Assembly has increased from 20.7% in 2013 to 20.9% in 2018. Civil society has been critical in advancing social change, notably via lobbying and awareness-raising initiatives on topics like gender-based violence and child marriage.

Continued investment in economic growth, political stability, and social advancement is required for Pakistan to build on its achievements and tackle the remaining problems. The overseas diaspora has historically helped the country in times of need through remittances and foreign direct investment. Friendly countries such as China, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates are also assisting the country in overcoming its economic difficulties.

The Unlawful Destruction of Kashmiri Homes


The Indian police and paramilitary troops damaged 114 houses and burned 22 others in 2020. This practice has now extended to four districts of Indian-occupied Jammu and Kashmir in 2023: Srinagar, Budgam, Anantnag, and Baramulla. The demolition of houses and properties in Kashmir has taken a heavy toll on the people of Kashmir. Not only have they been left homeless, but the emotional, psychological, economic, and societal consequences of their conduct have been terrible.

The extensive demolition of Kashmiri civilians’ houses and properties is one of the most terrible repercussions of the conflict in Kashmir. The demolition of Kashmiri houses and properties is a violation of human rights and dignity that the Indian government and the international world must condemn and prevent.

Kashmir has a long history of strife, persecution, and political turmoil dating back to 1947 when India and Pakistan were divided. The Indian government has retained authority over the territory, resulting in severe breaches of human rights and international law. The Indian government has exacerbated the conflict in Kashmir by using military force and committing extensive human rights violations, including the demolition of houses and properties. For many Kashmiris, this has resulted in widespread displacement, poverty, and homelessness.

The extensive demolition of homes and buildings in Kashmir has wreaked havoc on the Kashmiri people and their communities. As a result, many Kashmiris have experienced significant migration, poverty, and homelessness, resulting in widespread misery and hardship.

Destroying houses and property in Kashmir is a blatant violation of international human rights norms, particularly the right to sufficient housing and the ban on arbitrary displacement. The Indian government has violated the rights of the Kashmiri people by failing to comply with these principles. For the illegal demolition of houses and properties in Kashmir, the Indian government has failed to give due process and accountability. This lack of accountability has aided the region’s massive and continuous breaches of human rights.

The rampant demolition of homes and buildings in Kashmir has major ramifications for India’s rule of law and human rights protection. It sends a clear message that the Indian government does not respect human rights and dignity and that the rule of law is not enforced in the region.

Amnesty International India’s board chair, Aakar Patel, stated that the continuing demolitions appear to be a continuation of the harsh HRVs in the Muslim majority region of IIOJK and that no one should be forced homeless or subject to other human rights abuses as a result of evictions. The Indian government must immediately cease the demolition campaign and guarantee that protections against forced evictions are implemented per international human rights norms.

It is worth noting here that Modi is moving quickly to seize Kashmiris’ land to transform the whole state of J&K into its colony. Evicting people from lands they have owned for generations is another step in the colonization of Kashmir. The recent directive on land encroachment issued by the IIOJK administration is part of Modi’s diabolical plan to take Kashmiris’ land. Prime Minister Narendra Modi is transforming IIOJK into a settler colony, just like Israel is doing in occupied Palestine. The RSS and BJP have long desired the colonization of IIOJK. By repealing Art 370, India eliminated a barrier to non-locals settling in IIOJK. Modi’s ultimate goal in J&K is to eradicate Muslim identity and construct Hindu civilization.

The loss of a home is a very devastating experience for anybody, and the situation in Kashmir is no exception. Families whose houses and properties were demolished have left severe emotional wounds, feeling as though they have lost a piece of their identity. This trauma is exacerbated by the dread of losing their homes and livelihoods in the future, producing enormous psychological pain. As a result of the demolitions, several families have expressed dread, worry, and pessimism.

Loss of houses and property in Kashmir has far-reaching and terrible economic consequences. Many Kashmiri families’ homes and assets are their life savings and sole source of income. Many families have fallen into poverty and despair as a result of the loss of these assets, making it impossible for them to restore their lives. The societal impact is also substantial. When a family loses their house, they typically lose access to essential utilities like water and electricity, which can have major effects on their health and well-being. Furthermore, the loss of one’s house or property might result in relocation and forced migration, creating even more disruption and pain.

Demolitions of homes and assets have exacerbated Kashmir’s cycle of poverty and insecurity. The loss of assets and livelihoods has exacerbated poverty and despair, making it harder for families to satisfy their basic requirements. As a result, the populace has become increasingly vulnerable to exploitation and abuse, continuing a cycle of poverty and instability.

The human cost of demolitions in Kashmir emphasizes the emotional, psychological, economic, and societal consequences of such actions. It has demonstrated how the loss of houses and properties has had far-reaching implications for Kashmiris, worsening poverty and instability and inflicting severe emotional distress. Given the devastation caused by demolitions, the Indian government must act quickly to put an end to these practices. The Kashmiri people’s human rights must be maintained, and their homes and properties must be protected from further devastation.

It is critical to raise awareness about the human cost of demolitions in Kashmir and other conflict zones. This includes encouraging governments and other players to hold human rights violators accountable and calling on governments and other actors to uphold the rights and dignity of all people, regardless of ethnicity, religion, or political affiliation.

Armed Rebellion against the State: A Violation of Islamic Law


Pakistan’s present issue of armed rebellion against the state has become a serious source of concern for the country and its people. The growth of militant groups, as well as their use of violence and intimidation to oppose the authority of the government, has led in major instability, loss of life, and disruption of everyday life. These groups, working under various political and ideological banners, strive to impose their own vision for society via the use of force, which is directly contrary to the state’s promotion of the ideals of peace, justice, and order.

The issue of armed insurrection against the state is critical in the current situation because it has far-reaching repercussions for the country and its people’s destiny. It calls into question the state’s ability to maintain law and order while also ensuring the safety and security of its residents. It also weakens the country’s political and social stability, producing an atmosphere of dread and uncertainty that pervades all parts of life.

Islamic law, as outlined in the Quran and Hadith, promotes peace, justice and obedience to the state. The Quran explicitly states that

“O ye who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger, and those charged with authority among you. If ye differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if ye do believe in Allah and the Last Day: That is best, and most suitable for final determination” (4:59).

The use of violence for political or ideological objectives is severely forbidden in Islam and contradicts the religion’s precepts. One of the main reasons why armed revolt against the state is haram is because it violates the idea of loyalty to legal authority. Islam believes that obeying legitimate authority is a religious requirement, and that Muslims should respect and follow people in positions of power if their directives are in accordance with Islamic law. Individuals who engage in violent rebellion are basically rejecting this concept and striving to topple rightful authority, which is regarded a terrible sin.

Based on the ideas outlined in Islamic law, the thesis statement of this article is that armed revolt against the state in Pakistan violates Islamic law and contradicts Islamic teachings. The use of violence to attain political or ideological ends not only violates the ideals of peace, justice, and loyalty to the state, but it also jeopardizes the country’s and its people’s stability and security. This article will present a thorough review of Islamic law addressing armed rebellion against the state and show how terrorist groups in Pakistan are acting in clear violation of these principles.

Islamic Law and Its Stance on Armed Rebellion Against the State:

Islamic law, commonly known as Sharia law, is a complete legal and moral guiding system based on the Quran and Hadith. It encompasses all areas of life, such as personal and social behavior, economic transactions, and political issues.

The Quran and Hadith are unequivocal in their condemnation of violent insurrection against the state. As previously stated, the Quranic verse 4:59 mandates obedience to those in power, and using force to dispute this authority is deemed a breach of the ideals of peace and obedience to the state.Additionally, the Hadith states that

“Whosoever kills a person who has a treaty with the Muslims, shall not smell the fragrance of Paradise, though its fragrance may be smelt from a distance of forty years”.

This emphasizes the sanctity of life and the importance of respecting treaties and agreements.

Top Islamic scholars and clerics believe that using force against the state is prohibited in Islam. They believe that because the state was founded by the will of the people, it has the right to employ force to preserve law and order and defend its residents. The use of violence to oppose the state is regarded a breach of the ideals of peace and justice, and it contradicts Islamic teachings.

The Islamic community as a whole agrees that violent insurrection against the state is not allowed in Islam. This viewpoint is shared by academics and practitioners from many sects and schools of thought within Islam, and it is founded on the principles given in the Quran and Hadith. The Islamic community’s agreement on this topic serves as a powerful reminder of the significance of peace, justice, and loyalty to the state in Islamic teachings, as well as the sanctity of life.

The Impact of Armed Rebellion on Society and Religion:

Armed rebellion against the state has far-reaching and detrimental consequences for society and its people. Militant groups’ use of violence and intimidation causes instability, fear, and disorder, which impacts all sectors of life. The loss of life and property as a result of armed conflict disrupts society’s regular functioning and impairs the state’s capacity to deliver basic services and maintain the safety and security of its residents.

Armed revolt also has a negative impact on Islam’s reputation as a religion of peace. Many perceive the conduct of violent organizations claiming to operate in the name of Islam as directly contradicting the religion’s values of peace and justice. This hinders the Islamic community’s attempts to present a favorable image of the religion and weakens knowledge of Islam’s actual character as a peaceful and just way of life.

Armed rebellion against the state weakens and destabilizes the state’s ability to maintain law and order and secure the safety and security of its population. The use of violence to challenge official authority produces a climate of dread and uncertainty that pervades all parts of society. This affects the state’s capacity to deliver essential services like health care, education, and infrastructure, as well as eroding confidence between the state and its population. The disruption and instability caused by armed revolt also fosters the propagation of extreme ideology and the recruitment of new members by militant groups.


Armed insurrection frequently results in violence, damage, and death. Human life is highly valued in Islam, and the killing of innocent lives is considered one of the most serious crimes. According to Islamic religious edict, any armed action against the state of Pakistan constitutes a rebellion and is prohibited (haram) under Islamic law. This is a consensus shared by top Islamic scholars and clerics who have stated unequivocally that the use of force to implement Sharia, including armed confrontation against the state, sabotage, and all forms of terrorism, is categorically prohibited by Islamic teaching and is considered a rebellion or mutiny.

Armed revolt against the state is not only a breach of Islamic law, but it is also a grave threat to the country’s stability and security. The emergence of non-state actors and terrorist attacks in Pakistan has alarmed both the government and the general people. In Pakistan, there have been episodes of armed revolt against the state, most notably terrorism and sabotage. These behaviors not only violate Islamic law, but also hurt Islam’s and the Muslim community’s reputation. They also hinder the efforts of those fighting for the country’s peace and stability.

Future of People’s Resistance in Kashmir



Kashmir is a region in northern India that has long been at the focus of a territorial dispute between India and Pakistan. Since 1947, when India achieved independence from Britain and was divided into two countries, India and Pakistan, the region has been under Indian authority. Since then, the Kashmiris have fought for their rights, especially the right to self-determination and independence from Indian rule.

The Kashmir conflict has its origins in the region’s historical and political environment. Kashmir was divided between India and Pakistan as a result of India’s split in 1947. This partition, however, was not peaceful, and the two countries have been at conflict for regional authority ever since. The conflict has resulted in three wars and skirmishes, the most recent being the ongoing conflict over the Indian government’s revocation of Article 35A and 370 in Indian-occupied Kashmir, which has been marked by human rights violations, state-sponsored violence, and the suppression of civil liberties.

Kashmir’s quest for self-determination and freedom has lasted decades. Kashmiris have been in the vanguard of this battle, advocating for their rights and opposing Indian authority via peaceful protests and acts of resistance. Despite the difficulties they have experienced, the Kashmiri people have stayed persistent in their quest of independence and justice.

The Kashmiri people’s resistance to Indian domination demonstrates their tenacity, power, and resolve. Despite the obstacles, they continue to struggle for their rights, demonstrating that they are unwilling to give up their liberties or their right to self-determination. They have demonstrated via their resistance that they are the guardians of their land and the protectors of their rights.

The Kashmiri People’s Resistance:

Kashmiris have been fighting Indian authority in a variety of ways, including peaceful marches, civil disobedience, and armed resistance. Peaceful protests have been a regular form of resistance, with Kashmiris going to the streets to oppose the Indian government’s policies and breaches of human rights in the area. Armed resistance was also part of the resistance movement, with certain organisations urging the use of force to fight Indian authority.

Civil society and human rights groups have played an important part in the Kashmir resistance movement. These groups have been critical in recording human rights violations, campaigning for Kashmiri people’s rights, and offering support and help to individuals impacted by the war.

In their battle against Indian domination, the Kashmiri people have faced several hurdles. To crush the resistance movement, the Indian government has utilised military force, limited civil freedoms, and enforced mobility restrictions. Furthermore, the Kashmiri people have endured economic and social difficulties, such as unemployment, poverty, and a lack of access to fundamental amenities including as healthcare and education. Despite these obstacles, the Kashmiri people have maintained their resistance to Indian rule, exhibiting their enduring spirit and desire to protect their land and rights.

The Impact of Indian Occupation on Kashmir:

Indian soldiers have perpetrated several human rights abuses and crimes in Kashmir throughout their rule. Extrajudicial deaths, forced disappearances, arbitrary arrests and incarceration, and widespread use of torture have all occurred. Furthermore, the Indian government has enforced curfews and mobility restrictions, restricting the Kashmiri people’s capacity to freely express themselves and engage in political activities.

The Indian occupation of Kashmir has had a significant influence on Kashmiri socioeconomic and cultural life. The battle has resulted in massive devastation and displacement, as well as pervasive poverty and unemployment. The actions of the Indian government have also led in a reduction in the region’s level of living, with restricted access to essential amenities like as healthcare and education. In addition, the Indian government has enforced cultural restrictions, restricting the Kashmiri people’s capacity to retain and express their cultural history and identity.

The international community must play a critical role in resolving the situation in Kashmir. The international community must hold the Indian government accountable for its actions and campaign for the Kashmiri people’s rights and freedoms. Furthermore, the international community can have a role in resolving the issue and supporting attempts to find a peaceful conclusion. Nonetheless, despite demands from the Kashmiri people and human rights organisations, the international community has mostly failed to take effective action to improve the situation in Kashmir.


The Kashmiri people’s unwavering passion and desire to protect their land and rights is exemplified by their resistance against Indian domination. Despite multiple difficulties and breaches of their human rights, they have maintained a peaceful and nonviolent resistance to claim their right to self-determination. This resistance is vital not only for the people of Kashmir, but also for the broader context of the fight for freedom and justice.

The international community must demonstrate sympathy and support for the Kashmiri people in their struggle against Indian occupation. This may take numerous forms, from increasing awareness about the situation in Kashmir to lobbying for Kashmiri people’s rights on a worldwide scale. The Kashmiri people can only expect to accomplish their aim of independence and self-determination via collective action.