Anwar A. Khan

Anwar A. Khan is an independent political analyst based in Dhaka, Bangladesh who writes on politics, political and human-centred figures, current and international affairs

Six-Point Charter: The Foundation Stone of Bangladesh


An event that marks a unique or significant historical change of course or one on which important developments depend, the six-point demand is a milestone in the history of Bangladesh.

The movement, led by Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, took place in the-then East Pakistan and called for greater autonomy for the region. The movement aimed to address the six demands put forward by a coalition of Bengali nationalist political parties in 1966, with the goal of ending the exploitation of East Pakistan by the rulers of West Pakistan. It is considered a turning point on the road to Bangladesh’s independence.

After the partition of India, the new state of Pakistan was formed. The majority of its population resided in East Pakistan (later Bangladesh), and exports from East Pakistan, such as jute, constituted a significant portion of Pakistan’s export income. However, East Pakistanis did not feel they had a proportional share of political power and economic benefits within Pakistan.

Facing continuous regional discrimination, East Pakistan found itself in a critical situation. Consequently, economists, intellectuals, and politicians from East Pakistan started raising questions about this discrimination, giving rise to the historic six-point movement.

The six historical points are as follows:

The Constitution should provide for a true federation of Pakistan based on the Lahore Resolution, with a parliamentary form of government where the legislature is directly elected through universal adult franchise.

The federal government should only handle two subjects: defense and foreign affairs. All other residual subjects should be vested in the federating states.

Two separate, freely convertible currencies for the two wings of Pakistan should be introduced. If this is not feasible, there should be one currency for the entire country, but effective constitutional provisions must be introduced to prevent capital flight from East Pakistan to West Pakistan. Additionally, a separate banking reserve should be established, and separate fiscal and monetary policies should be adopted for East Pakistan.

The power of taxation and revenue collection should be vested in the federating units, with no such power for the federal center. The federation should receive a share of the state taxes to cover its expenditures.

Two separate accounts should be maintained for the foreign exchange earnings of the two wings. The foreign exchange requirements of the federal government should be met equally by the two wings or according to a fixed ratio. Indigenous products should move freely between the two wings, and the constitution should empower the units to establish trade links with foreign countries.

East Pakistan should have a separate military or paramilitary force, and the Navy headquarters should be located in East Pakistan.

The proposal was rejected by politicians from West Pakistan and non-Awami League politicians from East Pakistan. It was also rejected by the President of All Pakistan Awami League, Nawabzada Nasarullah Khan, as well as the National Awami Party, Jamaat-i-Islami, and Nizam-i-Islam. However, the movement garnered strong support from the population of the-then East Pakistan.

The Beginning of the Six-Point Demands

Mujib, who would later become Bangabandhu, was placed in detention under the Defense of Pakistan Rules on May 8, 1966. The reason for his detention was not hard to understand: Field Marshal Mohammad Ayub Khan, President of Pakistan, made it clear that those advocating for the Six Points would be dealt with using force.

Ayub Khan was not the only one who saw the Six Points as a threat to Pakistan’s unity. His soon-to-be foreign minister, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, challenged Mujib to a public debate on the Six Points in Dhaka’s Paltan Maidan. Tajuddin Ahmed, Bangladesh’s first Prime Minister, accepted the challenge on Mujib’s behalf. However, Bhutto did not show up for the debate.

The leaders of opposition parties from West Pakistan held a national convention in Lahore on February 6, 1966, to assess the post-Tashkent political trend. Bangabandhu and the top leaders of Awami League arrived in Lahore on February 4, and the following day, he presented the Six-point charter of demands to the subject committee as the demands of the people of East Pakistan. He exerted pressure to include his proposal in the conference’s agenda. However, the subject committee rejected Bangabandhu’s proposal.

The newspapers in West Pakistan published reports on the Six-point Program, projecting Sheikh Mujibur Rahman as a separatist. Consequently, Sheikh Mujib withdrew from the conference. On February 21, 1966, the Six-point Program, along with a proposal for a movement to realize the demands, was presented at a meeting of the Awami League’s working committee and was unanimously carried out.

Why the Six-Point Program is called the “Charter of Freedom for the Bengali Nation”?
From 1947 to 1971, a historic period for East Pakistan, numerous painful events took place in this region—some to forget and some to remember and learn from. The six-point movement was one such event to remember.

The points were clear, easy to understand, and, most importantly, they truly reflected the sentiments of the Bengalis. It was the first time a Bengali demanded economic and political rights and national security. However, the response from West Pakistan was painful and humiliating, confirming the belief that East Pakistan was treated as a colony by West Pakistan.

June 7, 1966, is a red-letter day in the history of the freedom movement of the people of Bangladesh. On this historic day, the resilient people of the country made a firm and solemn vow to achieve self-determination under the able and dynamic leadership of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.

Hence, this day holds great political significance. It was on this day that blood was shed by our people as they demanded self-rule through the famous Charter of Six-point Demands, which ultimately became the Magna Carta of all movements originating from Bangladesh. Therefore, the importance and significance of this historic day cannot be overstated.

If we trace the history of our freedom struggle, which began a long time ago, we will observe that Bangabandhu, as part of his long-term plan to lead his people gradually and systematically to the path of emancipation, presented his historic Six-point Program to the nation at a national conference of leaders from all political parties in Lahore on February 16, 1966. This program disrupted the schemes of exploitation planned by the ruling clique in Islamabad and caused a violent storm in the political arena of the-then Pakistan.

The former Pakistani government made every effort to suppress the demand for self-determination raised by the 75 million people at that time, as laid down in the Magna Carta of Bangabandhu. As a result of the Six-point Program, Bangabandhu and his followers were imprisoned on May 8, 1966. The arrest of Bangabandhu and his followers was vehemently condemned by the people, and protests in the form of meetings, rallies, and processions resonated throughout Bangladesh, shaking the distant capital in Rawalpindi.

On May 20, the Awami League Working Committee decided to organize a protest meeting on June 7, 1966, condemning the repression and demanding the release of Bangabandhu and other leaders. Thus, the strike on June 7 was observed. The day began with factories closed, transportation halted, and business houses shut down. People expressed their indignation against the oppressors and their resolute support for the leadership of Bangabandhu by coming out on the streets, closing their establishments, offices, and shops. Dhaka became a city of processions and slogans, with workers and students peacefully taking to the streets. However, the ruling clique could not tolerate the chanting of slogans by people who had made a sacred vow to realize their right to self-determination. They responded with violence, killing scores of people, including Monu Mia in Dhaka and Narayanganj. The people of Bangladesh continued to raise their slogans for independence, shedding their blood in the process.

But the story did not end there; the melody lingered on. Every glory has a price to pay, and the Bengalis paid a high price for their freedom. However, the great Liberation War brought the nation together. It was a moment of truth for the Bengalis as they united to fight the Pakistani aggressors. In the eyes of the Pakistani forces, they were no longer just “little brown people”; instead, they fought back and achieved victory.

“Father of the Nation” is an honorific bestowed upon individuals who are considered instrumental in the establishment of a country or nation. They play a significant role in liberating their nation from colonial or other occupations. Some notable examples include George Washington for the United States, Peter I for Russia, Sun Yat-sen for China, Sir Henry Parkes for Australia, Miguel Hidalgo for Mexico, Sam Nujoma for Namibia, William the Silent for the Netherlands, Einar Gerhardsen for Norway, Julius Nyerere for Tanzania, Jomo Kenyatta for Kenya, Carlos Manuel de Céspedes for Cuba, Mustafa Kemal for Turkey, Sukarno for Indonesia, Tunku Abdul Rahman for Malaysia, Mahatma Gandhi for India, Don Stephen Senanayake for Sri Lanka, and Mohammad Ali Jinnah for Pakistan. Similarly, Bangabandhu Mujib is recognized as the Father of the Bangladesh nation.

Finally, on December 16, 1971, Bangladesh was born after a bloody war with Pakistan’s oppressive military regime.

Bangabandhu was a remarkable statesman and the undisputed Father of independent Bangladesh.

From Idealism to Ineffectiveness: Assessing the Performance of Human Rights NGOs


Most of the human rights organizations may appear to be upstanding global citizens on paper, their practical impact can be questioned, labeling them as toothless tigers. Let’s examine their behavior:

During the upcoming national elections in Bangladesh, the people want a festive atmosphere that allows voters to freely choose their preferred candidate. However, it is highly offensive to see foreign diplomats stationed in Dhaka interfering in Bangladesh’s election process while their own countries have significant faults in various affairs, including their own election processes. When these diplomats attempt to prescribe solutions for our national matters, they come across as unjust rogues.

Although the next parliamentary elections are still more than a year away, foreign diplomats are already involving themselves in Bangladesh’s election process, which is unacceptable. The government does not appreciate their interference, criticism, or opinions on the election process and internal affairs of the country. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs has already instructed foreign diplomats working in Bangladesh to refrain from such actions. Additionally, media representatives should avoid asking foreign diplomats about our election process.

Regrettably, these international human rights organizations and their local counterparts have chosen to remain silent regarding the blatant and aggressive meddling of powerful nations like the United States in the domestic affairs of Bangladesh, an independent and sovereign country. This silence is deeply regrettable.

Moreover, the international non-governmental human rights organizations have failed to condemn the disgraceful decision of the White House administration to stop funding the World Health Organization (WHO) on flimsy grounds, violating international norms. Even the WHO itself has not addressed this issue yet.

In most cases, these organizations deliberately choose to remain silent on blatant violations of international rules by the American government and its allied authorities in weaker nations. It appears that they prioritize the interests of powerful states, displaying a double standard in their actions towards less powerful countries. They must strive to be more independent, resourceful, and courageous in fulfilling their responsibilities without succumbing to the influence of major powers or relying solely on their financial resources. Their work should not be compromised, and they should speak up against egregious and systemic human rights violations, especially those committed by the United States and its allies.

Millions of people have suffered crimes against humanity perpetrated by these rogue states, particularly the United States. It seems as though there is an unwritten agreement between these international non-governmental human rights organizations (NGOs) and powerful states such as the United States, where they refrain from speaking critically about them and their accomplice states.

Numerous human rights abuses occur in countries around the world, imposed in the form of abrasive sanctions to stifle nations and their people from asserting their rights. These NGOs remain silent when drone fighter planes strike weaker nations, resulting in the destruction of human lives and vital infrastructure for the sake of self-interest. In such situations, these NGOs hide their faces and fail to take bold steps to stop the oppressors. This raises the question of their effectiveness.

Furthermore, some global organizations have faced criticism for their inability to address the problems they were designed to tackle. The United Nations, for instance, has failed to compel Israel to adhere to its numerous resolutions, some of which were submitted by the UN Security Council. Similarly, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) has also been deemed ineffective. The critical situation in Myanmar is an opportunity for the OIC to demonstrate its capabilities. As a body consisting of 57 nations, it is essential for its bureaucrats to take serious action rather than issuing insignificant press releases.

While human rights and democracy are not synonymous, the global human rights regime should be based on the understanding that democratic governance provides the best foundation for durable human rights protection. Multilateral institutions should align their policies with the promotion of democracy as the fundamental principle. Institutions like the United Nations Development Programme should prioritize good governance and democracy in their initiatives. Human rights not only benefit from good governance but also thrive in democratic environments, both horizontally among states and vertically through the establishment of institutionalized frameworks within countries and societies.

Global economic institutions also have the potential to promote and protect human rights if there is sufficient political will. These institutions, such as the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and regional development banks, should extend their work on anti-corruption and good governance to ensure equal access to legal rights for all groups. By strengthening judicial institutions and fostering civil society participation, these efforts can enhance productivity and prosperity in developing nations. Similarly, the World Trade Organization (WTO) and its member states should encourage the elimination of barriers to freedom of information to facilitate market growth.

There is no doubt that the number of human rights non-governmental organizations has increased significantly in the sixty years since the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was promulgated by the United Nations. These NGOs proudly claim to play a critical role in promoting and protecting human rights worldwide. However, in reality, their impact is questionable.

The international human rights law arena still lacks a consensus on the definition and categorization of human rights NGOs. Nevertheless, all stakeholders agree that these organizations should protect internationally recognized human rights at various levels. Unfortunately, their failures are evident.

Successful and effective human rights NGOs should possess certain attributes and should self-regulate, possibly by adhering to NGO Codes of Conduct, to overcome internal and external challenges. It requires the concerted efforts of all relevant stakeholders to ensure that human rights NGOs fulfill their mandate of protecting human rights in all countries, without being influenced by powerful states that may engage in harmful actions.

The achievements and effectiveness of successful human rights NGOs should serve as models for all advocates and defenders of human rights, who often face significant sacrifices in their endeavors to improve the human experience.

In retrospect, the human rights treaties established after World War II were not just acts of idealism but also carried elements of hubris. They can be likened to the civilizing efforts of Western governments and missionary groups in the 19th century, which did little good for native populations while entangling European powers in the affairs of countries they did not understand. It is high time for a more proactive and pragmatic approach.

Addressing the potential for nuclear warfare is an issue that remains relevant in today’s globalized world. Initiatives such as The Nuclear World Project, led by Robert Frye, aim to create awareness of the dangers posed by nuclear proliferation and facilitate dialogue on resolution options. International NGOs should play an active role in these efforts, but their response has been insufficient.

Human rights provide an aspirational roadmap for decision-making and balancing trade-offs. This framework is crucial when dealing with disruptive and potentially dangerous forces that present complex challenges. However, it seems that organizations like Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch fail to effectively address issues involving superpowers like the United States and its influential allied states.

The contemporary international human rights framework should be enduring and evolving. It can continue to emphasize our shared humanity, provide a moral compass, and instill determination and purpose in the face of daunting odds faced by weaker nations against mighty powers.

Unfortunately, international human rights organizations or NGOs often remain toothless tigers. They require significant improvements and reforms to fulfill their obligations effectively.

Vileblackguard’s Outcries for Bangladesh!

We, the people of Bangladesh, are eagerly anticipating the upcoming national election to be comprehensive and inclusive in our country. This is a matter that concerns our nation alone. However, we have noticed the unwarranted involvement of a foreign diplomat who seems to be jumping from one place to another – from the media to the Election Secretariat, and even engaging with NGOs that have questionable affiliations with powerful nations, all to spew nonsensical rhetoric. He seems to be attempting to dictate how our national polls should be conducted, without any authority or mandate, acting on behalf of his country’s vested interests.

His smiles appear disingenuous, suggesting that there might be ulterior motives behind his actions – morally reprehensible ones at that. Therefore, it is only fitting that we reprimand and strongly criticize him for his behavior.

In the historical context, let us briefly examine the U.S. presidential election:

It is widely known that voter fraud has been an issue in America. Following the 2020 election, President Donald Trump launched numerous lawsuits to review the results in battleground states, claiming that the election was tainted by “tremendous corruption and fraud.”

During the 19th and early 20th centuries, powerful networks called political machines often controlled local votes through cronyism, bribes, and manipulation of the voting process. This consolidated political, social, and financial power in the hands of a few individuals.

Various tactics were employed to suppress votes, especially in the South, including theft of ballot boxes, relocation of polling stations, burning of ballots, illegal arrests on election day, importing voters who did not reside in the precinct, wrongfully striking off names, fabricating reasons to avoid holding elections in precincts with a significant Black population, casting votes on behalf of deceased or fictitious individuals, ensuring that poll watchers and counters became intoxicated during the vote count, and organizing disruptive demonstrations to intimidate voters.

The allegations of fraud have had a detrimental impact on the U.S. election system.

Following foreign meddling allegations in the 2016 presidential election, concerns about voter suppression and unsubstantiated claims of widespread voter fraud by undocumented immigrants loomed over the subsequent midterm contest, particularly in Georgia and other states.

Vote buying is the act of seeking to buy a voter’s vote in an upcoming election, which can take various forms, such as monetary exchanges or exchange for goods and services. Although this practice is illegal in many countries, it remains prevalent worldwide.

During the 19th century in some parts of the United States, competing parties engaged in secret vote buying, compensating voters with cash or covering their expenses, such as house payments or taxes. To maintain secrecy, parties would establish fully staffed vote-buying shops and employ runners to find potential voters and negotiate with them to vote in favor of their party.

In the U.S., voters may also receive money or rewards for voting in a particular way or not voting at all. In some jurisdictions, this practice is referred to as “electoral treating” and remains legal in places like the Seneca Nation of Indians.

In America, vote buying can manifest as “turnout buying,” where a broker pays for transportation to polling locations or incentivizes specific demographics that strongly support their party to vote. While this may not change the political preferences of the voters, it ensures a certain number of votes for their party.

The foreign diplomat we are referring to has no other purpose in our country but to dictate how our national polls should be conducted. He has established undercover connections with local individuals who aim to undermine the current government through covert means.

In his book “Mobocracy: How the Media’s Obsession with Polling Twists the News, Alters Elections, and Undermines Democracy,” Matt Robinson examines the problems arising from the media’s excessive reliance on polls in America. Despite significant issues with question wording, sampling error, and response bias, news organizations treat survey results as infallible. Consequently, pundits, the media, and voters create political narratives to justify these results, committing the logical fallacy of reasoning from effect to cause.

Media reports indicate that the 2020 presidential polls in the U.S. had the worst performance in decades.

A task force established by the American Association for Public Opinion Research (AAPOR) analyzed 2,858 polls, including 529 national presidential race polls and 1,572 state-level presidential polls. They discovered that the surveys overstated the margin between President Biden and former President Donald Trump by 3.9 points in the national popular vote and 4.3 percentage points in state polls.

Almost every state’s polls underestimated the support for Trump, with an average understatement of 3.3 percentage points. Similar issues affected polls for Senate and gubernatorial races.

The accuracy of issue polling could be compromised by the same problems that affected election polling, as support for Trump versus Biden correlates strongly with party affiliation and opinions on various issues.

Josh Clinton, a political science professor at Vanderbilt University and chair of the 19-member task force, noted, “There was a systematic error that was found in terms of the overstatement for Democratic support across the board.”

Now, it should be apparent to everyone what the true agenda of this foreign diplomat and his country is concerning our nation and our national polls. We should not place any trust in someone engaged in covert activities from hostile frontlines.

Let us focus on our own country’s affairs and refrain from interfering in the internal matters of others, including the meddling of outsiders like him.

We should remember the saying, ‘One black sheep spoils the whole flock.’ It is our collective responsibility to unite our voices and prevent any intrusion into the national affairs of his tainted country, with the aim of building a better and peaceful global society for all. Down with Uncle Sam and their local and foreign collaborators.”

NATO’s existence is redundant!


There are a total of 30 countries who are members of NATO. The last country to sign up was North Macedonia on March 27, 2020. The alliance state that they have an open-door policy when it comes to countries wanting to join. However, they must be prepared to meet certain criteria to gain membership under the covert drubbing by Uncle Sam.

NATO’s fundamental goal is to safeguard the Allies’ freedom and security by political and military means. NATO remains the so-called principal security instrument of the transatlantic community and expression of its common democratic values, but covertly dictated by the US administration.

The most recent figures published by NATO shows the US is the single largest contributor to the alliance. Based on NATO estimates for 2021, the US contributes 1.4 million armed personnel, making up 41% of the 3.3-million-armed personnel in the alliance. The remaining 59% come from Canada and European countries.

The Warsaw Pact was declared at an end on 25 February 1991 and the Czechoslovak President, Vaclav Havel, formally declared an end to it on 1 July 1991. So, the NATO’s existence is redundant!

The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 28 countries. It operates an internal (or single) market which allows free movement of goods, capital, services and people between member states. And the EU is also not beyond the hegemonic influence of America.

The two largest countries in Europe are now at war. The immediate cause of this situation has been the expansion of NATO and its project to constrict its imperial competitor, Russia, by establishing large bases of troops and mass-destructive weapons along its western and southern borders and the massive arming and training of Ukrainian forces and paramilitaries especially by the British. The ugly duckling of Uncle Sam, being the most powerful member of NATO, has been using other NATO members for its own interests since its formation in 1949.

Remembering the brutish 1971 war waged on our nation by Pakistan like a rogue country in collusion with abominable Uncle Sam, we cause to feel intense dislike or distaste for the present Russia and Ukraine war!!

Whatever news items and video clippings have now been releasing via media and social media outlets on the current war between Russia and Ukraine are commanded by Uncle Sam and its mango-twig nations. Truth is evil designedly buried.

On the basis of human loss, any war is unjust and immoral. Who among us can put a premium on human life?

Peace and stability themselves are the fruit of justice. We want peace and harmony in and around Ukraine and everywhere across the world, not war, violence…

The war with Ukraine was not expected to be waged by Russia. But brazen-faced Uncle Sam deliberately Incited Russia unabatedly to attack Ukraine. The Devil is also referred to as the Satan. America has many faces and its ill-bred face will soon come-out! One can legitimately condemn some aspects of Moscow’s behaviour before the war was started by Russia, but the force of America’s moral outrage is vitiated by the stench of U.S. hypocrisy!

People around the world don’t want war in any setting. And everybody across the world wants this problem to be solved not by war, but by diplomacy.

24th February last war was started by Russia with Ukraine. At least for throughout one month beforehand, if any one reads the statements by Biden, Blinken and their mango-twigs in media outlets, one will find the answer.

Uncle Sam started stirring up Russia to attack Ukraine to understand the capability of Russia’s power after the break-up of Soviet Union. America previously believed Russia has not that much of power to launch assault on Ukraine. Moreover, if America has come forward to fight back Russia, nations of NATO power, Israel (Israel is the most favourite country to USA) will in no time stand-by Uncle Sam, fight and crush Russia at once, but no one responded to America once the war has begun.

The situation is aggravated by the fact that overt fascism is well ensconced in the political system of Ukraine and in its military. In the last few weeks US and British arms have been imported on a massive scale to the Baltic countries without regard to the financial or human cost.

It is clear that it will be the working classes of Russia and the Ukraine that will pay the heaviest price in this on-going military conflict. We express solidarity with the working classes of Russia and Ukraine and with communists in both countries and we share the heartbreak of soldiers and their families, victims of inter-imperialist warfare.

These developments show the baneful consequences of the expansion of the NATO war alliance. They also represent the need for the governments concerned to draw attention away from their political and economic failures. The European Union in particular played a major role in the coup of 2014 to undermine Ukraine and continues to work to subsume that country into its construct.

Democratic forces across Europe must find unity and united action to demand the dismantling of the aggressive military alliance of NATO and to oppose the EU-PESCO military build-up. The hypocrisy of the western imperial power knows no bounds, in particular that of American in collusion with British imperialism and its role and interference in the affairs of the people across the world for centuries and which continues to deny the right of the people of all those nations to self-determination and the establishment of an independent sovereign state.

The current situation confronts us with the spectre of an inter-imperialist nuclear war. There is an urgent need for neutral and non-aligned states to join together to work for nuclear disarmament and the dissolution of war alliances. There is a great opportunity for the NATO and EU nations and similar other nations to use their memberships of the UN Security Council to take an independent stand appropriate to a sovereign state, stop the on-going war between Russia and Ukraine and resolve all conflicts amicably.

In these dark days in Europe, it should not be forgotten that western powers are pursuing their warring activities such as supporting Saudi Arabia in its continual slaughter in Yemen and supplying it with bomber aircraft and armaments resulting in the devastation of urban areas. Like the wars in Africa that conflict is largely ignored by western media. Supporting proxy wars both large and small, as well as using illegal sanctions and subversion to advance and protect its economic, political and strategic military interests globally.

Hypocrisy and double standards are standard elements of imperialism by Uncle Sam getting support by NATO members. They have waged numerous illegal wars across the global to advance and defend the interests of global corporations and monopoly capitalism. War and threats of war are constant tools of imperialist powers for both economic and strategic reasons.

Attempting to undermine the sovereignty of Venezuela, Nicaragua, Iran and DPR Korea in particular, states of different ideological basis are subject to continual threats and harassment. Sanctions applied to these and other countries inevitably damage the lives of the very poorest of citizens. Such sanctions are often of dubious legality especially when imposed by Uncle Sam and its mango-twigs – the EU and NATO member countries.

We call for an immediate ceasefire in Ukraine and a political solution within the UN-negotiated Minsk Agreements of 2014. Such a solution would encompass a demilitarised, neutral Ukraine, with all foreign forces and mercenaries removed and the dismantling of neo-fascist para-military groupings.

Our neutrality must be enshrined with the peace-loving peoples of the world, not the armies of imperialism. And NATO must be dismantled in the greater interests for the world society and for a peaceful world.

Bangladesh: ‘There are daggers in men’s smiles…’


Our glorious Liberation war of 1971 to found Bangladesh is our plume. Our national flag is our preen. Our national anthem is our pride. We achieved Bangladesh at the blood-bath of 3 million of our people by the lunatic Pakistani military regime in league with the US and Chinese governments and their local brutish cohorts, majorly the Jamaat-e-Islami (JeI) sub-humans. To attain Bangladesh, three hundred thousand of our mothers and sisters lost their chastity at the hands of those malefactors. We saw their baleful everlasting annihilation of the freedom-loving people of all classes and of all religions in the country.

These perps forced out one million of our people from their homes with unspeakable sufferings, made them shelter-less and forced them to take refuge inside India. All these men-made disasters were played out throughout a 9-month war in 1971. We finally gave them a crushing defeat on 16 December1971, scalawag Pakistani Army’s 93,000 soldiers surrendered to our feet and our beloved Bangladesh came into being as an independent and sovereign state in the world map. We are proud of the secular spirit that we earned through our glorious Liberation War in 1971.

That was a shameful defeat for them for which they can’t forget this abasement. In each and every moment, they have been looking for a dent to inflict heartrending damage upon the political party now in power under whose leadership Bangladesh attained independence in 1971 and hurt massively the underlying structure of the country – Bangladesh.

The pearls do not fall from the sweet smiles of the U.S. Ambassador for Bangladesh Peter Haas, Uncle Sam’s 20 vassal states and their local old and new paisanos though they show-up the Lapp language to make us believe them, with the intent to deceive us in other respects or ways.

There have been daggers unremittingly in their smiles or in their malefic actions since long against Bangladesh and the pro-Bangladesh government. These daggers are very large and sharpened and they are now combat-ready to stab us from behind the scene and from the frontline. Their audacity should not go unbridled, unpunished under any considerations!

“There’s daggers in men’s smiles. The near in blood, the nearer bloody.” – William Shakespeare’s Macbeth narrates the tale of a Scottish general, who driven by greed and avarice murders his King in order to take the throne. The verse quoted at the beginning of the paragraph is spoken by Donalbain, son of the murdered King in conversation with his brother Malcolm. The term “daggers” used in the quote signifies the dangers of trusting an individual or group to such an extent, that one is blinded by the possibility of their exploitation and the other party’s harmful intentions. “Smiles” was skillfully utilised to signify insincere emotions and attitudes that one may deceptively display solely for their selfish gains. Shakespeare informs the reader that no matter how genuine a smile may seem, there is always the probability of that smile concealing deceit.

If we delve in the drawer, we find that the men who smile at us are actually concealing daggers, wanting our blood. Of all these men are our vitriolic foes counting on the forthcoming national polls and the living digital security act 2018!

It is also essential to bring up the point that the bacilli of the local defeated forces of 1971 could not be destroyed after Bangladesh’s Founding Father Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman’s killing intentionally and with premeditation on 15 August in 1975 by Khondokar Mushtaque Ahmed and his camarilla and because of skullduggeries of depraved military rulers – Gen. Zia, Gen. Ershad and their compadre – Begum Zia for two decades or so. Unfortunately, they have infected, among so many other people, especially the vast majority of younger generation, in the country.

BNP and JP are unlawful machinates, were born in the military bivouac on 1 September 1978 and January 1, 1986 respectively by profaned military dictators Gen Zia and Gen Ershad using government spy agencies and millions of monies from the government exchequer and they were self-proclaimed Presidents of Bangladesh.

Deviating from what is considered moral, right, proper or good, these reprobate personas, power-hungry men in nature purposely reinstated the anti-liberation forces, especially Jamaat-e-Islami (JeI), small factions of Muslim League and their ill chums in every sphere of circuits on the soil of Bangladesh. So, BNP, JP and JeI are unquestionably anti-liberation forces in the country and they embody the defeated forces of our 1971 war to establish Bangladesh.

Jamaat-e-Islami (JeI) is well-known and long-familiar both at home and abroad as a killing outfit of our millions of people in 1971 in league with Pakistan’s military junta and Uncle Sam as well as in support of China. It is also well-known for its worst war criminality in the annals of history. Even if we also hark-back the years of 2013 and 2014, we can clearly see the vivid pictures of the real violent world of BNP and JeI and how these two political outfits brought about terrible excruciations to our people in the country. We cannot and shall never forget the Talibani or ISIS style of brutalities they did thrust out to our innocent people during those times.

Furthermore, the newfangled veteran freedom fighters – ASM Abdur Rob, Mahmudur Rahman Manna, Comrade Saiful Hoque, Maj Gen (retd.) Syed Mohammed Ibrahim and the likes of them have surrendered to the blood-stained mitts of the anti-liberation forces, Pakistan’s ISI, CIA of America and their quislings to give them more leverage at free-will to do more impairment to Bangladesh and its people. All these sounds megascopic perfidiousness to the souls of millions of our people who consecrated their lives to attain Bangladesh in 1971. Their ill action mechanisms also bear witness to their utter assaultive-ness to the core gems or pearls on which Bangladesh was founded in 1971……

The U.S. Ambassador for Bangladesh Peter Haas and his overseas white skinned mango-twigs have come to the fore in the field of Bangladesh in mooring with all ferine anti-Bangladesh liberation forces as Prime Minister Hasina’s corpus rival in the country in the upcoming general polls.

The defeated forces of 1971 also want to rewrite history to slur over Bangladesh’s glorious Liberation War. It also suggests a willingness for them to reinterpret even the most sacred chapters of Bangladesh’s history.

The obnoxious nexus of anti-Bangladesh liberation forces and their foreign perps should keep in mind that in the centre of a Russian inner sanctuary, the white-domed Hall of Glory, an enormous statue of a Soviet soldier stands with a sword at his feet; its sheath bears this inscription: “He who comes to us wielding a sword shall die by the sword” and our people echoed the same words to Uncle Sam and their newfangled sidekicks, both local and foreign, giving them a crushing defeat in the forthcoming 12th national voting fight.

Still then, this neo-face of defeated force (Uncle Sam and their old and new perps) and their cronies are active to tweak with several fingernails to the bottle green national flag of Bangladesh with the red circle symbolising the rising sun and the sacrifice of lives in our freedom fight in 1971.

As long as crimes of Uncle Sam, anti-Bangladesh liberation forces – both old and some new freedom fighters and their local and foreign mango-twigs and their dishonouring of our glorious spirit that we attained in 1971 are seen to be related solely to those outside one’s inner circle, the mechanisms of denial and silencing create complicity. Their loyalty is thus built on lies only, bald-faced lies only.

It is a Big Joyful Smile on their unbeautiful faces! This means that wicked men smile not out of kindness, but to hide their wicked intentions. In fact, their anticipations are bound to smackdown in the forthcoming national elections in Bangladesh, because some ‘Rogues supplant justice.’

In defence of secularism in Bangladesh


The state has nothing to do with religion. Religion is purely an individual’s own affair. The two-nation theory was graved through our glorious Liberation War in 1971 and in establishing Bangladesh.

Secularism is a wider view to the world that assures the independence in connection with all its strengths, qualities, values and behavior towards all sects, religion and other spiritual actions. This is a view that requires action and not just abstract thinking. Independence in a sense that the world as true self value.

The secularism we adapt is that of the positive and non-bias that respects all religions and groups. It is one of the basic elements to build a Bangladesh’s society that is surrounded with unity. It should create equality, justice, freedom, peace and democracy. It is the right road towards growing a nation that owns a base of one law taken from freedom and the declaration of human rights.

This fact clarifies the true meaning of secularism. It verifies to the world with all its value and independence. We chose Bangladesh as a result of its historical background in relation to this matter specifying secularism in relation to politics, social values, employment, law, identity, institutions and humanitarian values. 

Secularism is the equality that comes from the law without any civil, religious or group as mediums.

This coincides with the meaning of patriotism that makes each individual a national person. Therefore, who has a duty and right which is specified by the civil laws; example, personal secularism is the independence of the person and his religious beliefs among society; As a result, as a total right to express it. In other words, to respect every person and not to discriminate, and is alliance to a country and not a religion.

As for political secularism it is an independence from religion and not belonging to a religious group; in other words, to differentiate between religion and politics. The sovereignty of the president or any other president not matters what the religion is.

Sovereignty to practice politics without religious interference that have the right to practice their leadership as patriotic not in accordance to religion.

Employment secularism: total governmental independence not to associate any job to the amount of religions and not to discriminate between employees according to religion but to treat each one fairly.

As for group secularism: allowing total independence for a civil society with its individuals and groups without the intervention of religious institutions either through law example federalist or spontaneous.

Not to consider any religion a part of the government and not considering them have to special benefits. Lack of intervention of social institutions with the religious, such as, participation in religious lectures.

Another part of secularism is that of cultural secularism it is independent from education, health, and social to religion; canceling religions description from these institutions in its name or community or the conditions from benefiting from it or their programmes. Support of governmental and people and not to religion.

Dividing religious education from official institutional education and substituting with general culture about various religions with civil, patriotic, and social unity.

it is the independence of the law from religious laws without contradicting what religion thinks as valuable putting laws in according to civil rights, in the name of the people, not in the name of religion even if is taken from religious books. To delete all the subjects in the constitution, laws and documents that are written; especially elections and army; updating the civil rights, especially the bends chosen with respect to religious beliefs building civil courts that is responsible for implementing the civil right with its chosen bends.

Constructing judicial court that is requisite to implement the civil rights with optional bends. It is the independence of human values, such as, freedom, justice, equality, democracy, peace and ethnic background. Considering it a humanitarian value no matter about its historical background; to activate for the person and only the person.

No doubt after mentioning the all these details about secularism, it reveals that there should be willingness and completeness for personal secularism is the bases for the rest, for if a person considers himself of value, and equal to others everyone in society will be influenced by that. Secularism exceeds the meaning that we mentioned to include institutional secularism, law, political, and employment. All this creates a cultural or valuable secularism. 

If the state accomplishes these goals, Bangladesh will reach an advance state in regards to the nation, parties, groups, social, economic, politics and religion.

There will be enough elements to produce the sense of nationalism instead of religious belonging. And the constitution will relinquish the religious document to make it an independent nationalistic not based on religion.

Therefore, the government will have total authority if it declines from religion so there will no longer be states within a state. It extracts the fact that any religious image, without considering Muslim or Hindu or Christian or any other religious people. Furthermore, people of all religions will become more attached to one another, because they no longer are afraid of being divided; as a result of religion and therefore, will gain strength in order to protect and participate in building a better country. 

To get rid of the rightist and leftist parties even those that state secularism from a long time from a religion that they instated with consciousness or not. We will strengthen it and make it more attractive especially those who are interested in constructing a modern government; reinforce its political activities especially after adjusting certain laws in relation to elections and that the parties present its candidate without any religious favours.

Complete secularism helps in building a fair and active society for everyone; gives priority to the areas, societies and lands that are deprived from all the essential things in life putting aside for any religious favours. Restores to all the people their rights without any discrimination. Furthermore, assists on acting with complete freedom, no chaos or distinction for religious preference. Moreover, to give the people to behave in total freedom without interference from they are political or religious leaders so as to restore a healthier democratic state in association with a complete political and active responsibility from the people; instead of depending on their representatives. 

In addition, lessen the conflicts among the political leaders that breaks in most times all the possibility of a strong and just ruling. To free the country from governmental advantages in favour of those who are of the same religion act in harmony to their own advantages. This mechanism of ruling will be easier without any fear of negative reactions and also enhances to clarify the conflict in classes. Of society by demolishing the religious advantages by discovering the bonds, economic, and social laws which is our duty to adjust so as to serve the society of those who are less fortunate and to work in changing without the fear of religious outbreak of lie and unjust.

Secularism helps in distinguishing between faith and living a blissful life, on one hand and the elements of a religious society on the other hand. It offers the opportunity for the religious and non-religious to have the freedom to choose something based on their own beliefs without any religious dominance from society.

It helps in freeing religion twisted problems and suspected alliances that are used from far ranges from its genuine aims. It provides assistance to help free religion from its misconception that is fabricated by religious society so as to justify the state and render it from criticism. These conceptions, such as, those that make God the strength and victor to the believers against their enemies, to violent killing, and bias against those who are not in their place. 

Secularism helps in setting free Muslims (psychologist) from the complex of fear and benefits, and freeing the Hindus from the complexity of injustice and stupidity. It aims at release both parties from caution, arms depot, equalising of fear and militates. Moreover, releasing the Christians from the constant search towards the west for support and depending on them for strength and the Muslims from constant searching to eastern Islam for support and strength as well.

In addition to freeing the sects from bias thoughts, in other words, freeing the group of religious believers or those who are a member of a sect, who are influenced in being a part of this cultural belonging that is creating an ill-tempered atmosphere for those who offend their religion. Hindus….

However, we are aware of how difficult and complicated it will be in Bangladesh to build such a society, but in order to construct a healthy, strong, and modern society there must be secularism. In the possibility of accomplishing this complete secularism from one point or the likelihood of being without it creates a big challenge among Bangladesh’s people.  So, eventually there will be a clear plan that divides the stages in detail for secularism that is feasible for later, and distribution of the stages to attain it.

The first point that should be focused on is the clarification of secularism with all its aspects thought the media. At the same time, we should condemn all misunderstanding or part of it, that could be attempted either to confuse or the will to confuse so as to strike the accurate of secularism.

The second thing is to gather all those who are convinced of secularism and organising them to be among the annual conference of secularism in Bangladesh. This should be able to gather all those groups of secularism, in arrival to an ultimate understanding and trying to persuade them to accept the other difficulties that are obvious.

Furthermore, fulfilling an agreement among those of the annual conference to form a possible strategy that will be conceivable. Moreover, the chance to invite all people to a discussion about secularism and rooting it one by one.

Dividing this learning through stages regularly or inevitably is imperative.

The third point is to put a detail description of a plan, with a schedule to fulfill it gradually or regularly. This should be done through research examining every point and organising it in a file that will be able to answer all objections and criticism. Besides that, it should follow a lengthy programme so these strategies will start to be easier and faster, at the same time, considering the methods of other teachings that looks harder and demands longer time.

There is no place of communalism in Bangladesh. We created our homeland in 1971 for people of all religions to live together in peace.

Role of Psychological Warfare in Bangladesh’s Liberation War – Part 3


American Joan Baez – sang her heart out for Bangladesh

Highly reputable American musician Joan Baez wrote and performed the song “The Story of Bangladesh” at the Concert for Bangladesh, Madison Square Garden in 1971. This song was based on the Pakistan Army crackdown on unarmed sleeping Bengali students at Dhaka University on 25 March 1971, which ignited the nine-month Bangladesh Liberation War. The song was later entitled “The Song of Bangladesh” and released in the chart-topping ‘Come From the Shadows’ album on May 1972 which is as follows:

“Bangladesh, Bangladesh

Bangladesh, Bangladesh

When the sun sinks in the west

Die a million people of the Bangladesh.

The story of Bangladesh

Is an ancient once again made fresh

By blind men who carry out commands

Which flow out of the laws upon which nation stands

Which is to sacrifice a people for a land.

Bangladesh, Bangladesh

Bangladesh, Bangladesh

When the sun sinks in the west

Die a million people of the Bangladesh.

Once again, we stand aside

And watch the families crucified

See a teenage mother’s vacant eyes

As she watches her feeble baby try

To fight the monsoon rains and the cholera flies.

And the students at the university

Asleep at night quite peacefully

The soldiers came and shot them in their beds

And terror took the dorm awakening shrieks of dread

And silent frozen forms and pillows drenched in red.

Bangladesh, Bangladesh

Bangladesh, Bangladesh

When the sun sinks in the west

Die a million people of the Bangladesh.

Did you read about the army officer’s plea

For donor’s blood? It was given willingly

By boys who took the needles in their veins

And from their bodies every drop of blood was drained

No time to comprehend and there was little pain.

And so, the story of Bangladesh

Is an ancient once again made fresh

By all who carry out commands

Which flow out of the laws upon which nations stand

Which say to sacrifice a people for a land.

Bangladesh, Bangladesh

Bangladesh, Bangladesh

When the sun sinks in the west

Die a million people of the Bangladesh.”

The song’s message was loud and clear. This powerful message further highlighted the Bangladesh cause to the international masses. It was a great feat to have a renowned star like Joan Baez stood right beside the people of Bangladesh to uphold our constitutional right and seek justice for an oppressed nation. The song was a source of inspiration and strength to the 75 million people in those dark days of turmoil, uncertainty, pain, courage and innumerable deaths that brought independent Bangladesh.

In 2011, the Government of Bangladesh came up with a list of over 500 foreign friends who have made immense contribution during the Muktijuddho and the initial years of Bangladesh. Each one of them would receive honourary award from the government in recognition of their contribution. The awards would be given in two categories – “Bangladesh Muktijuddho Sammanana” (Bangladesh Liberation War Honour) and “Muktijuddho Moitri Sammanana” (Friends of Liberation War Honour).

This list included as many as 24 international organisations, including Red Cross, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), Indian radio broadcaster Akash Bani, Geneva-based International Commission of Jurists, World Health Organisation, and International Labour Organisation.

The late Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was the first ‘foreign friend’ to be conferred with the honourary award. She was awarded ‘Bangladesh Freedom Honour’ posthumously in July 2011. Her daughter-in-law and ruling Congress president Sonia Gandhi received the honour on her behalf at a special ceremony in the Bangabhaban (President’s House) in Dhaka.

Allen Ginsberg

Famous British poet Allen Ginsberg visited the refugee camp in India during the liberation war in 1971. He wrote several poems, especially ‘September on Jessore Road’ which supported and gained fame in favour of the liberation war of Bangladesh.

Formation of Swadhin Bangla Betar Kendra (‘Free Bengal Radio Centre’)

It was the radio broadcasting centre of Bengali nationalist forces during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. This station played a vital role in liberation struggle, broadcasting the Declaration of Independence and increasing mental state of Bangladeshis during the war. In 1971, radio was the only media reaching to the far ends of Bangladesh. It ran a propaganda campaign throughout the war.

The end of British rule in India in August 1947, accompanied by the Partition of India, gave birth to a new country named Pakistan which constituted Muslim-majority areas in the far east and far west of the Indian subcontinent. The Western zone was popularly (and for a period of time, also officially) termed West Pakistan and the Eastern zone (modern-day Bangladesh) was initially termed East Bengal and later, East Pakistan. The two zones were separated by over thousand miles of Indian territory in the middle, and had vastly different culture. It was the fact that the west zone dominated the country, leading to the effective marginalization of the east zone. Growing disenchantment among the people of East Pakistan finally led to civil disobedience followed by Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971.

During the period of Liberation War of Bangladesh, media supported mass sentiments. They aired patriotic songs and talk shows. In the process of achieving our independence by trouncing the atrocities of the Pakistani military forces, the war-time broadcasting station ” Swadhin Bangla Betar Kendra” played a vital role in increasing the mental state of the whole Bangali nation by informing us how well we are advancing towards the victory. Swadhin Bangla Betar Kendra reached its pinnacle during the liberation war being acclaimed as the stool pigeon of war news updates through ‘Chorom Potro’. In those days when radio was the only media reaching to the far ends of Bangladesh, Swadhin Bangla Betar Kendra eventually turned as the orator of the Bangladesh government in exile. It ran the nationalist campaign throughout the war in gearing up our freedom fighters’ moral and also mobilizing world opinion in favour of Bangladesh.

Thus, during the whole period of Liberation War, Swadhin Bangla Betar Kendra successfully carried out its intellectual war like an organized front and aired patriotic songs which greatly inspired the freedom fighters in their relentless fight against the Pakistan-led occupation forces, war news and talk shows to boost up people’s spirits.

Regular Features of Swadhin Bangla Betar Kendra

Chorompotro’ was the most popular program hosted by M. R. Akhtar Mukul. Here, he used to describe the uncomfortable position of Pak army in a funny voice and made his dialogues in Old Dhaka dialect. Chorompotro was planned by Abdul Mannan. Another popular program “Jallader Darbar” was run by Kalyan Mitra where approaches of Yahya Khan, known in the programme as “Kella Fateh Khan” were described in a funny manner. “Bojro Kontho” was the programme where speeches of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman were presented.

A group of young singers used to sing inspiring songs. Many poems and songs were written for this broadcasting. One of those songs Joy Bangla Banglar Joy (Victory of Bengal) was the signature tune of the radio. Many songs of Swadhin Bangla Betar Kendra like Purbo Digante Surjo Uthechhe, Ekti Phoolke Bachabo Bole, Salam Salam Hajar Salam of Gobinda Haldar, became immensely popular. Singers of the station raised funds singing their songs in different parts of West Bengal.

News broadcasts were made in Bengali, English and Urdu.  Secretary of the Swadhin Bangla Betar Convener Committee Kamal Lohani recalled, “For us at the radio, it was a psychological warfare so we could say things to boost up people’s morale…”

Swadhin Bangla Betar Kendra (‘Free Bengal Radio Centre’) was the radio broadcasting centre of Bengali nationalist forces during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971. This station played a vital role in liberation struggle, broadcasting the Declaration of Independence and increasing mental state of Bangladeshis during the war. In 1971, radio was the only media reaching to the far ends of Bangladesh. It ran a propaganda campaign throughout the war.

Shadheen Bangla Betar Kendra reached its pinnacle during the liberation war being acclaimed as the stool pigeon of war news updates through ‘Chorom Potro’. In those days when radio was the only media reaching to the far ends of Bangladesh, Swadhin Bangla Betar Kendra eventually turned as the orator of the Bangladesh government in exile. It ran the nationalist campaign throughout the war in gearing up our freedom fighters’ moral and also mobilizing world opinion in favour of Bangladesh.


Role of Psychological Warfare in Bangladesh’s Liberation War — Part 2

Anthony Mascarenhas

Initially, as per their plan, the Pakistani army decided it would be a good idea to invite some Pakistani reporters to the region to show them how they had successfully dealt with the “freedom fighters.”

Foreign journalists had already been expelled, and Pakistan was also keen to deliberately publicise deceptive, untrue atrocities committed by the other side.  Eight journalists, including Mascarenhas, were given a 10-day tour of the province. When they returned home, seven of them duly wrote what they were told to.

But one of them refused. Yvonne Mascarenhas remembers him coming back distraught: “I’d never seen my husband looking in such a state. He was absolutely shocked, stressed, upset and terribly emotional,” she says, speaking from her home in west London. “He told me that if he couldn’t write the story of what he’d seen he’d never be able to write another word again.”

Clearly it would not be possible to do so in Pakistan. All newspaper articles were checked by the military censor, and Mascarenhas told his wife he was certain he would be shot if he tried. Pretending he was visiting his sick sister, Mascarenhas then travelled to London, where he headed straight to the Sunday Times and the editor’s office.

Mukti Bahini fighters on their way to the front line in the-then East Pakistan during the 1971 fight against the savage Pakistani Army and their local brutal mango-twigs to attain Bangladesh.

Indians and Bengali guerrillas fought in support of attaining Bangladesh. Evans remembers him in that meeting as having “the bearing of a military man, square-set and moustache, but appealing, almost soulful eyes and an air of profound melancholy”.

“He maintained that what the army was doing was altogether worse and on a grander scale,” Evans wrote. Mascarenhas told him he had been an eyewitness to a huge, systematic killing spree, and had heard army officers describe the killings as a “final solution”. Evans promised to run the story, but first Yvonne and the children had to escape Karachi.

They had agreed that the signal for them to start preparing for this was a telegram from Mascarenhas saying that “Ann’s operation was successful.” Yvonne remembers receiving the message at three the next morning. “I heard the telegram man bang at my window and I woke up my sons and I was: ‘Oh my gosh, we have to go to London.’ It was terrifying. I had to leave everything behind.

“We could only take one suitcase each. We were crying so much it was like a funeral,” she says. To avoid suspicion, Mascarenhas had to return to Pakistan before his family could leave. But as Pakistanis were only allowed one foreign flight a year, he then had to sneak out of the country by himself, crossing by land into Afghanistan.

The day after the family was reunited in their new home in London, the Sunday Times published his article, under the headline “Genocide.”

It is such a powerful piece of reporting because Mascarenhas was clearly so well trusted by the Pakistani officers he spent time with. I have witnessed the brutality of ‘kill and burn missions’ as the army units, after clearing out the rebels, pursued the pogrom in the towns and villages. I have seen whole villages devastated by ‘punitive action’.

And in the officer’s mess at night, I have listened incredulously as otherwise brave and honourable men proudly chewed over the day’s kill.

‘How many did you get?’ The answers are seared in my memory. His article was – from Pakistan’s point of view – a huge betrayal and he was accused of being an enemy agent. It still denies its forces were behind such atrocities as those described by Mascarenhas, and blames Indian propaganda. It seems as if rogues supplant justice.

In Bangladesh, of course, he is remembered more fondly, and his article is still displayed in the country’s Liberation War Museum. “This was one of the most significant articles written on the war. It came out when our country was cut off, and helped inform the world of what was going on here,” says Mofidul Huq, a trustee of the museum.

His family, meanwhile, settled into life in a new and colder country. “People were so serious in London and nobody ever talked to us,” Yvonne Mascarenhas remembers. “We were used to happy, smiley faces, it was all a bit of a change for us after Karachi. But we never regretted it.”

Indian Ravi Shankar and Ustad Ali Akber Khan & British George Harrison – the world’s first aid event and the concert for Bangladesh

On 1 August 1971, Indian sitar maestro Ravi Shankar and ex-Beatle George Harrison organised two benefit concerts in Madison Square Garden in New York City, USA, entitled ‘Concert for Bangla Desh’ (as ‘Bangladesh’ was spelt then) to bring awareness and aid to the plight of the Bengalis.

Many worlds famous and leading musicians participated in the Concert for Bangla Desh, including Ustad Ali Akbar Khan, Ringo Starr, Bob Dylan, Eric Clapton, Billy Preston, Leon Russel and the band Badfinger.

The concert for Bangladesh is a result of a joint afford of Pandit Ravi Shankar and George Harrison. Together they made plan for three months to finalize the concert. The concert was attended by Eric Clapton, Bob Dylan, Don Preston, Billy Preston, Leon Russell, Ringo Starr, Ravi Shankar, Ustad Ali Akbar Khan, Ustad Alla Rakha. George Harrison composed and sang the song entitled ‘Bangladesh’ in the Concert for Bangladesh, which was staged at NewYork’s Madison Square Garden in 1st August 1971 in front of 40,000 people. The concert raised close to US$250,000 for Bangladesh relief, which was administered by UNICEF.

Argentine Victoria Ocampo

In 1971, Victoria Ocampo even though aged 90 waged a campaign in her country Argentina seeking justice and freedom for the people of Bangladesh, and an end to the oppression carried out by the Pakistani government. What made her stance even more remarkable was that she was 90 years old. Tender, frail, and barely able to look after her own self, Victoria Ocampo used her high status to focus world’s attention to the Bangladesh tragedy and led a passionate campaign to help the Bengalis.

American Joan Baez – sang her heart out for Bangladesh

Joan (Chandos) Baez, American folk singer, songwriter, musician, and a prominent activist in the fields of human rights, peace, and environmental justice. Has a distinctive vocal style, with a strong vibrato.

(To be continued…)

Role of Psychological Warfare in Bangladesh’s Liberation War of 1971 – Part 1



Sun Tzu’s famous quote is pertinent here, “To fight and conquer in all our battles is not supreme excellence; supreme excellence consists in breaking the enemy’s resistance without fighting.” Psychological warfare, also called psywar, the use of propaganda against an enemy, supported by such military, economic, or political measures as may be required.

Since the recorded history of warfare, a wide variety of psychological, propaganda, deception, subversion methods and tools have been used to gain a position of advantage against an adversary with the aim to ultimately win, with or without the use of kinetic force. Therefore, the primary aim of psywar is to target the cognitive domains so as to inform, influence, persuade and shape the perception of the targeted population, leaders as well as rank and file of security forces.

Psychological warfare

In 1971, apart from Indian psychological warfare, Bangladesh government in exile also launched an all-out psychological warfare on block-buster level against Pakistani Army and their local buddies in the-then East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).

Declaration of Independence

In his last message, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman called upon the people to resist the occupation forces. Mujib was arrested on the night of 25–26 March 1971 at about 1:30 am (as per Radio Pakistan’s news on 29 March 1971).

The world press reports from late March 1971 also make clear that Bangladesh’s declaration of independence by Bangabandhu was widely reported throughout the world.

What was the role of media in Bangladesh

In this war the media, mainly the Radio, played an important role in inspiring the freedom fighters to go forward with brevity. Besides, in 1971, World Media also played a greater role in the war of independence of Bangladesh publishing the reports on war in world level.

What was India’s role in the Bangladesh War

The 1971 war against Pakistan was not a war won by India alone. It was a war jointly won by India and the people of the-then East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). India’s great role has always been lauded in Bangladesh for attaining our own homeland in 1971.

How is the war of 1971 remembered in Bangladesh?

Fifty-two years after the 1971 war, which led to the independence of Bangladesh, each country involved in the battle institutionalised a distinct memory of the events of that year. In Bangladesh, the war is remembered as the Bengali people’s struggle against an oppressive Pakistan army and its local brutish.

The Role of International Media & Artists

The War of Liberation of 1971 was fought not only by the brave Mukti Bahinis (Freedom Fighters). The creation of Bangladesh also supported through the coverage it received in the international media and artists. Journalists brought home to the people of the world the story of the trials and sacrifices of the heroic people of Bangladesh, and the tribulations they were facing under the insensitive and brutal military administration of the occupying armed forces of Pakistan and their local mango-twigs.

Simon Dring, The Daily Telegraph, London

The first major expose of what had happened in the early hours of 26 March was done by Simon Dring, the young ‘Daily Telegraph’ reporter from London. He had flown into Dhaka on 6 March to cover the growing political tension and then eluded Pakistani search parties (that were entrusted with the task of expelling foreign correspondents). He managed to stay on and presented to the outside world his first-hand account of the fighting that had broken out in the stricken state. He left Dhaka on the weekend after 26 March and filed a special report on the sudden mass crackdown in Dhaka. He was the first to point out on 30 March 1971 that more than 7,000 Bengalis had been slaughtered in Dhaka over 48 hours. It was also clear from his article that the army had struck without warning, under the cover of darkness and that these factors were responsible for enormous casualties.

Anthony Mascarenhas

Bangladesh war: The article that changed history ‘Genocide’ in Sunday Times on 13 June, 1971.

On that day, an article in the UK’s Sunday Times exposed the brutality of Pakistan’s suppression of the Bangladesh’s people’s uprising. It forced the reporter’s family into hiding and changed history.

Abdul Bari had run out of luck. Like thousands of other people in the-then East Pakistan, he had made the mistake the fatal mistake of running within sight of a Pakistani patrol. He was 24 years old, a slight man surrounded by soldiers. He was trembling because he was about to be shot. So, started one of the most influential pieces of South Asian journalism of the past half century.

Written by Anthony Mascarenhas, a Pakistani reporter, and printed in the UK’s Sunday Times, it exposed for the first time the scale of the Pakistan army’s brutal campaign to suppress its breakaway eastern province in 1971. Three million people were brutally murdered by Pakistani Army and their local mango-twigs, especially Jamaat-e-Islami mass-murderers.

Mascarenhas’ reportage played its part and it helped turn world opinion against Pakistan and encouraged India to play a decisive role.

Prime Minister Indira Gandhi told the-then editor of the Sunday Times, Harold Evans, that the article had shocked her so deeply it had set her “on a campaign of personal diplomacy in the European capitals and Moscow to prepare the ground for India’s armed intervention,” he recalled.

Mascarenhas was, Evans wrote in his memoirs, “just a very good reporter doing an honest job.”

He was also very brave. Pakistan, at the time, was run by the military, and he knew that he would have to get himself and his family out of the country before the story could be published – not an easy task in those days.

“His mother always told him to stand up and speak the truth and be counted,” Mascarenhas’s widow, Yvonne, recalled (he died in 1986). “He used to tell me, put a mountain before me and I’ll climb it. He was never daunted.”

When the war in what was the-then East Pakistan broke out in March 1971, Mascarenhas was a respected journalist in Karachi, the main city in the country’s dominant western wing, on good terms with the country’s ruling elite. He was a member of the city’s small community of Goan Christians, and he and Yvonne had five children.

The conflict was sparked by elections, which were won by an East Pakistan party, the Awami League under the able and dynamic leadership of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, which wanted greater autonomy for the region.

While the political parties and the military argued over the formation of a new government, many Bengalis became convinced that West Pakistan was deliberately blocking their cherished desire.

The situation started to become flog with or as if with an inflexible rod. The Awami League launched a campaign of civil disobedience, and the army flew in thousands of reinforcements.

On the evening of 25 March, it launched a pre-emptive strike against the Awami League, and other perceived opponents, including members of the intelligentsia and the Hindu community, who at that time made up about 20% of the province’s 75 million people.

In the first of many notorious war crimes, soldiers attacked Dhaka University, lining up and executing students and professors. Their campaign of terror then moved into the countryside, where they battled local troops who had mutinied.

(To be continued…)

Independence Day in Bangladesh:  A Long Walk to Freedom

Patriotism is the theme for the 26th of March. Many poets have taken on the subject over the years and their words, even in part, have been engrained in the minds of millions of our people. Like famed poet Walt Whitman, on this day, I hear Bangladesh is singing varied patriotic songs. I hear those of mechanics, each one is singing his as it should be blithe and strong, the carpenter is singing his as he measures his plank or beam. The mason is singing his as he makes ready for work, or leaves off work. The boatman is singing what belongs to him in his boat, the deckhand is singing on the steamboat deck. The shoemaker is singing as he sits on his bench, the hatter is singing as he stands. The wood-cutter’s song and the ploughboy’s song are on their way in the morning, or at noon intermission or at sundown. The delicious singing of the mother or of the young wife at work, or of the girl sewing or washing, each singing what belongs to him or her and to none else. The day what belongs to the day—at night the parties of young fellows, robust, friendly are on singing with open mouths their strong melodious songs for Bangladesh.

As proud flags are raised with the hoist, when fireworks are set to be ignited, and patriotic eyes become all moist; as we pledge the flag and anthems sing, and celebrate the sound of freedom’s ring… Thank brave people for Independence Day! Today we celebrate freedom. Thanks to those who came before. Those brave men who fought and died in each and every war. Freedom always comes at a price, and while we celebrate, we should tip our hats to the heroes who made our country born in 1971. Here is our honour to the builders—the builders of the past; here is our honour to the builders that built ships to last; here is our honour to the captain, and honour to the crew; and here are our double-column headlines to the ships that battled through. I would say to them all that the wild wave’s song is a paean for the men and women that battled through. The sunrise plains are a tender haze and the sunset seas are gray, but I stand here, where the bright skies blaze over me and the big today.  Or a mournful day, for the sun wheels swift from morn to morn and the world began when we were born and the world is ours to win.

Today is an auspicious day for our country because on this day, we are entering the 52nd year of our Independence. Today we re-dedicate ourselves to the progress and prosperity of our nation; to the welfare of all our people; and today we salute our beloved bicolour flag. On 26 March 1971 the independence of Bangladesh was declared and the Liberation War began. The people of then-East Pakistan took part in this war to liberate Bangladesh from the oppression of the military leaders of Pakistan. Independence for Bangladesh was gained through a nine-month people’s war against the Pakistani Army, which resulted in the loss of about 3 million lives. The Freedom Fighters, with military support from India, defeated the Pakistani Army on 16 December in the same year. Thus, Bangladesh came into being.

But the people of Bangladesh discovered their identity through the Language Movement in 1952. The struggle to establish their identity and national spirit began soon after 1947, when the British left India dividing it into two countries: India and Pakistan. Bangladesh, then East Pakistan, was part of Pakistan, which was put together by combining two geographically, culturally, and linguistically separate groups of people.

The people of Bangladesh soon realised that being a part of Pakistan, which was created on the two-nation theory, there was little scope for the distance culture of Bengalis to flourish. The Bangla language is the most important vehicle of cultural expression for the people of this land. The refusal of the central government in West Pakistan to grant official status to the Bangla language became the focal point of the struggle.

In the elections of December 7, 1970, the Awami League won 160 out of 162 seats in the then East Pakistan and would have had a clear majority in the new assembly. Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman became the majority party leader of the Pakistan National Assembly.

The military rulers of Pakistan refused to allow the Awami League to form a government. A heinous conspiracy was plotted by the then Pakistani military dictator president Yahya Khan along with Pakistan’s People’s Party chief Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. Even though a conspiracy was being planned, General Yahya Khan was careful not to let this be known. A full-scale movement of non-cooperation with the military government began on early March 1971. Thus, Bangladesh plunged into a gory war seeking its own birth.

The Pakistan Army began their genocide by attacking the innocent Bengalis of Dhaka city and then the whole land of Bangladesh with their sophisticated weapons. The dwellers of Dhaka city never confronted such unimaginable cruelty. The Pakistani army systematically massacred thee million Bengalis and unleashed a brutal war against us to prevent our shoot for independence.

But the brave people of this beloved land did not let the dream of the encircled flag of red and green fall down to dust. During the nine months of struggle which ensued an estimated three million Bengalis died and ten million refugees fled to India. Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib was imprisoned in West Pakistan. A Bangladesh Government in exile was established. The Bengalis started smart and courageous guerrilla warfare. At one point, India also got involved in the war. The actual military campaign of India took place in December and lasted only ten days. The Indian Army launched a massive offensive against the Pakistani forces to support the Bangladesh movement. On December 16, 1971, the Pakistan army surrendered.

Every year the Government, different organisations and institutions take elaborate programmes to celebrate the day on a befitting manner. The national flag is hosted in all important offices, buildings, institutions and shops. All-important places are tastefully decorated. Meetings and seminars are held to explain the importance of the day. On this day we pay rich tributes to the memory of the day. On this day we also pay rich tributes to the memory of the martyrs who laid down their lives for the sake of our independence. 52 years after the birth of the nation, many have forgotten the sacrifices of those who are no longer with us. But for those of us who survived, for our parents who kept us safe through the months of terror, there is no erasing the horrors of 1971.

Bangladesh today has yet to exorcise the demons of 1971. Many of the anti-Islamist-evil-reactionary and anti-liberation forces in the guise of humans who collaborated with the Pakistan army and murdered countless Bengalis have established their strong and wealthy positions in the soil of Bangladesh during 15 years of military dictatorial regimes. After 1991 national polls, their mango twigs who ruled the country have further ravaged the country to destroy the unexpended spirits of our glorious Liberation War of 1971.

Today the secular Bangladesh that was born from the ashes of 1971 is under threat. It is under threat from the same forces that helped perpetrate the genocide of 1971. The future of a secular Bangladesh hangs in the balance today. In 1971, Bangladeshis learnt the evils of both racism and religious extremism. It is a lesson we should not forget at our own peril. Many of these gryphons have yet to face justice for the irremissible crimes they committed continuing at full strength or intensity.

This day reminds us of the supreme sacrifice of our freedom fighters who will ever shine in our hearts like the luminous stars in the sky. But at the same time, we must remember the spirit of the liberation war. So, let all of us remember the spirit of Independence Day and see to establish just laws in the country to build it as a country which rightly be called “Golden Bangladesh.”

26 March is the Independence Day of Bangladesh. It is a red-letter day in the history of Bangladesh. It is a public holiday. This day is observed all over the country and also all over the world. It celebrates the country’s declaration of independence from Pakistan in the wee hours on 25 March 1971.

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